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CJ- CH.5

Criminal Justice Chapter 5

law enforcement has been used synonymously with _________ policing
policing is one aspect of ______ ___________ law enforcement
defining policing law enforcement; ex. police direct traffic, deal with neighborhood disturbance & fill out paper work; police officers are people to whom society has granted the power to use physical force when they deem necessary or appropriate
vigilantism use of volunteer, self-appointed committees organized to suppress crime & punish criminals
1700s-1900s vigilantism; organized groups of more than or equal to participants who were the elites of the community
vigilantism use to be local _____________ residents
examples of vigilantism wild west sheriff & people who got their friends together and punished their enemies
vilgilantism enforces _______ not _______ norms; laws
slave patrols capturing fugities; originally to keep slaves from running away; kept whites on top; 1st publically funded city police departments; slavery was legally protected
The English Model prevented crime; frank pledge; watch system; preventive patrol
frank pledge peace keeping system in early England where a group of 10 local families agreed to maintain the peace & make sure law breakers were taken into custody & brought to court
watch system system where particular men were assigned the job of watchman & became responsible for patrolling the streets, lighting lanterns, serving as a lookout for fires, and generally keeping order; replaced frankpledge
preventive patrol officers maintaining a visible presence in communities to serve as a deterrant to a variety of street-level crimes
NYC police 1800 vs. England police NYC: only people they knew trusted them, much diversity; England: public trust them, little ethnic diversity
political era patronage-based policing; local political bosses selected members of their party to be police officials as a reward for party loyalty; based on who not what they knew; use of common force "street justice" (punishing suspect on the spot)
what police era was from 1840's - 1920s political era
what did the political era begin with the creation of organized police departments in USA's major cities
political era had police officer's receive ___________ training little or no
role of police in political era to control undesireable immigrants, maintain order, & provide a variety of social services
when was the professional era 1920's - 1970s
professional era the police as law enforcers
many reforms in professional era hire based on knowledge not politics; training became more systematic
hire of minority officers ___________ during the professional era because they were less likely to have education needed decreased
crime ________ during the professional era increased
during professional era many citizens disliked police because of how they were handling anti-Vietnam protests
911 system was developed during the professional era
technology changes in professional era police cars began; UCR becan; phones became more accessable
when did August Vollmer live? 1876-1955
August Vollmer professional era; 1st police chief of Berkeley, CA; believed in science & hiring knowledgeable people; began to link certain crimes together
community policing era working for-and with-the public; emphasizes crime prevention; engage residents in policing to help prevent crimes; community policing; relationship between police & society changed (supposed to have + relationships)
community policing philosophy of policing that emphasizes crime prevention and focuses on developing positive relations between the police and the public
community policing era demanded ________ time from officers more; time to establish positive relationships
proactive policing prevent crime, don't react to it; community policing era
when was the community policing era 1970's-present
when was slave patrols used 1740s - 1840s
when was the English Model used 1700-1800
what's the difference between vagilantism and slave patrols? vagilantism-residents organized to punish people deemed out laws; slave patrols-residents organized to enforce laws meant to control slaves
what's the difference between English model and political era? English-local patrol force had limited authority & quasimilitary organizational structure.police departments in US cities developed similarily; political-police get jobs because of political affiliation& enforced the priorities of the political party
what's the difference between the professional and community policing eras? professional-focus was on enforcing the law, hiring qualified officers, using technology, & improving police training; community-focus on crime prevention with the assistance of improved relations with community members
sworn personnel "peace officers"; police department employees entrusted with arrest powers
non sworn personnel civilians
2 categories of local law enforcement agencies sheriffs' offices; police departments
which local law enforcement agency typically polices counties where no city provides law enforcement services sheriffs' office
which local law enforcement agency responds to violations of criminal statues (defined by state-level penal codes) & violations of city or county ordinances sheriffs' offices
which local law enforcement agency provides jail facilities for both accused & convicted persons sheriffs' offices
which local law enforcement agency provides transportation services for all incarcerated persons within counties sheriffs' offices
which local law enforcement agency serves summonses & subpoenas, provide court security, serve eviction notices, & enforce child support laws sheriffs' offices
which local law enforcement agency has a higher number of people than the other local law enforcement agency police departments (4:1 ratio)
which local law enforcement agency operates in usually rural areas police departments
which local law enforcement agency performs most law enforcement duties police departments
which local law enforcement agency responds to violations of state penal codes & local ordinances police departments & sheriffs' offices
which local law enforcement agency generally provides only temporary housing of arrested persons & arrested persons remain in custody only until their initial appearence in court police departments
summons direct persons accused of crimes to appear in court
subpoena direct individuals to appear in court to present evidence
state law enforcement agencies greatly vary; roles & missions are defined by state law; 1/2 of state agencies have crime lab services open to local police departments
examples of state law enforcement agencies motor vehicle law violation investigation, lottery, oversight, alcoholic beverage control, & narcotics enforcement
state law enforcement agencies make up _____ % of the law enforcement community 8
federal law enforcement agencies deal with violations of federal statues
examples of federal law enforcement agencies FBI, DEA, Secret Services
Department of Justice (DOJ) chief law enforcement department; headed by attorney general in president's cabinet; provides federal leadership in preventing & controlling crime; ensureing public safety against foreign & domestic threats
what makes up the DOJ FBI, DEA, ATF, & US Marshals Services
what is the mission of the FBI to protect & defend the USA against terrorism & foreign intelligence threats & to uphold/enforce the nation's criminal laws (ex. finger print identification)
What does the DEA do? enforce USA's laws & regulation on substances; investigates & prepares for the prosecution of those charged with violating controlled substance laws at interstate & international levels
what does the ATF do? enforces federal laws, regulates the fire arms & explosives industries, & investigates & reduces crimes involving firearms, explosives, acts of arson, & illegal trafficking of alcohol & tobacco
US Marshals Service oldest federal law enforcement agency; backbone; apprehend federal fugitives, protect the federal judiciary, operate the witness security program, transport federal prisoners, and seize property acquired by criminals through illegal activities
definition of the problem of fragmentation lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies in the same geographical region due to the existence of many small departments; ex. one agency may have info to help the another but the info isn't shared
requirements for recruitment must have good oral and written communication skills; must be physically and psychologically fit, free of convictions of criminal history, and have a solid employment history
demand for officers is always increasing
because of the perception of police officers in our community recruiting is becoming harder
methods of recruitment newspaper, career fairs, internet, college internships, and career exploration groups
which group is hit hardest in police recruitment grad students
selection process includes mental & physical tests; background checks; good moral character checks; solid work effort checks
siege mentality police view of themselves as a "band of brothers" or "sisters"-against everyone else in society
service-oriented police department balances enforcement activities and basic police work with sensitivity to community needs and believes trust with the community is important
what is the most common police officer (physical description) white male
demographics of candidates work ton increase minorities; some places think women lack physical strength necessary for police work
do males or females tend to have less lawsuits brought about by using inappropriate force females
in minority areas blacks & Latinos are morel likely to be hired
training facilities today states train recruits academically and physically; more more standardized than it used to be
training curricula supervised field training; professional training must be completed every few years to refresh skills; adult learning; stimulation-based training
adult learning rapidly replacing traditional lecture format; method of learning that emphasizes engaging the learner's experiences in the curriculum
simulation-based training use of computers, media players, interactive screens, and authentic looking replicas of police firearms and vehicles to simulate field conditions
training in legal issues designed to help officers perform well; helps shield officers & employers from lawsuits; standardized training establishes common practices
w types of police subculture police occupational and police organizational
police occupational subculture norms and beliefs embraced by most officers in a given country; influenced by perception of danger etc
police organizational subculture norms and beliefs particular to an individual department; ex. one department values this another values that
blue code of silence adherence to a code of conduct that places loyalty to fellow officers above all other values
officers expect but rarely receive... respect
largest police tool is communication
us vs. them mentality police vs. citizens; citizens lie to officers; officers know they're lied to; isolates police
pressure put on police everyone is watching them
police are evaluated based on _______________ not _____________ action not daily police work (and the officers begin to believe that's the most important part of their job)
discretion authority to act in a manner that officers judge most appropriate for a given situation; there are too many laws to be enforced so officers make their best judgement
positives of police discretion allows officers to act in the most just manner in a given situation; allows officers to decide where to focus their energy; increased justice
negatives of police discretion temtation to abuse power; allows room for racism; allows some people who deserve punishment to avoid it
influences on the use of discretion seriousness of crime; circumstance; gender; age; intoxiaction; race; location; victim/perpertraitor relationship
racial profiling police contact with an individual initiated because of the person's skin color or ethnicity
victims and the use of discretion the greatest influence on the decision to arrest is the victim's or complinant's preference for arrest
victim and perpertraitor relationship usually victims need more protection if they know their attacker
abuse of authority __________ their relationship with the community damages
miseuse of authority police disregard for policies, rules, or laws in the performance of their duty
noble cause justification for wrongdoing committed by an officer based on the premise that the end justifies the means
officers who misuse authority may face _________________ prosecutions for violations of state and federal laws criminal
excessive force and false arrests can cause police officers to face charges (it's an abuse of power)
corruption misuse of authority for personal gain, such as skimming seized narcotics monies; motives aren't always monitary
2 schools of thought why corruption happens organizational explanations for police corruption; individual explanations for police corruption
organizational explanations for police corruption police subculture and "code of silence" to blame; afraid of being a rat or left behind in a dangerous situation
individual explanations for police corruption personality; lack of empathy; stress; difficulty following rules
integrity adherence to moral principles and professional standards; opposite of abuse
management's leading role responsible for reducing vulnerability in the police force; punishes abuse; must demonstrate integrity
early warning systems data driven programs that idenfity police whose behavior suggests misconduct; automatically records officers roles in situations; helps find patterns
targeted integrity testing strategy of using controlled opportunities to test for unlawful or unethnical behavior ; test unlawful behavior; officers are monitored to see if they take the bait
formal mechanisms for detecting and investigating misconduct internal affairs units handle and report misconduct; report and discuss misconduct complaints; must have speedy and fair resolution of complaints
privatization the transfer of government programs and functions to the private sector
private security any individual, organization, or service-other than public law enforcement and regulatory agencies-engaged primarily in the prevention and investigation of crime, loss, or harm to specific individuals, organizations, or facilities
growth of private security 2x the amount of private security officers in USA vs. public law enforcement officers; also instal security alarms; private security companies often augment the workforce employed by the TSA
quality concerns of private security originally poor discipline and no license necessary; lots of abuse originally; lots more training enhancements now
private security/law enforcement cooperation some economic crimes are beyond the jurisdiction of local police; high-tech crimes are hard to investigate; private companies are afraid of $ loss and so pair up with private police officers
Created by: 530848841