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Fibroma formation where patient has been cheek biting Reactive Connective Tissue Hyperplasia
Glandular component of breasts in nursing mothers Hyperplasia
Size of one kidney when the other is removed Hypertrophy
Squamous cell carcinoma Neoplasia
Skeletal muscles when exercised Hypertrophy
Epulis Fissuratum Reactive Connective Tissue Hyperplasia
Tongue thrust habit Hypertrophy
Pyogenic Granuloma Reactive Connective Tissue Hyperplasia
Pulp Polyp Reactive Connective Tissue Hyperplasia
Squamous Papilloma Neoplasia
Patient's fractured right ankle has been immobilized with a cast for the past 6 weeks. Appearance of that ankle when the cast is removed Atrophy
Increase in the size of an organ as a result of increase in the size of cells is defined as Hypertrophy
On medical history, patient indicates he is being treated for Epilepsy. On examination, gingival enlargement in papillary areas is noticed by the clinician. This gingival enlargement is caused by: Phenytoin
Papillary hyperplasia is an oral lesion in the vault of the palate due to denture irritation
statements about Neoplasia It means 'New Growth' It exhibits unlimited growth It exhibits unregulated growth The cells undergo irreversible change
occur on the gingiva Pyogenic granuloma Irritation fibroma Pregnancy tumor Dilantin hyperplasia
Formation of keratin over surface of oral mucosa represents a protective response is analogous to a callus formation on the skin cannot be wiped off
Syphilis is an infection caused by this microorganism - Treponema Pallidum - is a spirochete in the Bacterial species
lesions found in the PRIMARY Chancre
lesions found in the SECONDARY Mucous patches
lesions found in the Tertiary Gumma
other name for Hypoplasia of incisors and molars Hutchinson's incisors & Mulberry molars
Interstitial Keratitis cause blindness
Eighth Nerve Deafness Auditory nerve damage
HUTCHINSON'S TRIAD 1. Hypoplasia of incisors and molars (Hutchinson's incisors & Mulberry molars) 2. Interstitial Keratitis (Causing blindness) 3. Eighth Nerve Deafness (Auditory nerve damage)
Lesion extending above the surface of mucosa Exophytic
Abnormal looking cells on biopsy examination, with no orientation to original cells or to one another Anaplastic
Malignant tumor arising from epithelial tissues Carcinoma
Occuring in various forms Pleomorphic
Any white plaque like lesion of oral mucosa Leokoplakia
Cells stained intensely on biopsy examination Hyperchromatic
Tumor arising fromtooth forming tissues Odontogenic
When a tumor actively spreads to surrounding tissues Invasion
Malignant connective tissue tumor Sarcoma
Trasport of tumor cells from the primary site to secondary sites Metastasis
Define Hyperplasia an increase in the number of cells - can increase the overall size of the organ. With hyperplasia, normal cells proliferate in a normal arrangement in response to the stimulus (or need). The proliferation stops when the stimulus (or need) is gone.
Define Hypertrophy an increase in the size of individual cells of the organ, whereby increasing the overall size of the organ in order to meet an increased functional demand
Define Reactive connective tissue hyperplasia
Atrophy decrease in size and function of an organ, due mainly to 'disuse'. immobilization of fractured leg or arm with plaster cast. The immobilized leg or arm will show 'atrophy', whereas the opposite leg or arm will become 'hypertrophied'
causes of 'Atrophy' are 1. changes in cellular growth 2. malnutrition 3. pressure 4. ischemia 5. hormonal changes
Neoplasia new growth. In this type of tissue response, cells exhibit uncontrolled proliferation. The term 'tumor' is used to indicate 'neoplasia' . Is an abnormal process. The cellular changes are irreversible, and uncontrollable.
Describe: Epulis fissuratum
Describe: Papillary hyperplasia of palate
Describe: Gingival enlargement
Describe: Chronic hyperplastic pulpitis
Describe: pulp polyp
Describe: Pyogenic granuloma
Describe: Giant cell granuloma
Describe: Irritation fibroma
Examples of Hyperplasia - Gland component of breasts in nursing mothers - Lymph node enlargement in infection - Callus formation on the skin Hypercementosis - Frictional Keratosis & Linea Alba
Cervical Lymphadenopathy Lymph node enlargement in infection May be combination of hyperplasia & hypertrophy
Neoplasia New growth :Uncontrolled & irregular proliferation of cells
Anaplastic When proliferating cells do not look like the original cells, look very abnormal and each cell may look so different than the remaining cells (Loss of differentiation and loss of orientation to one another)
Benign fairly harmless, possibility for recovery , treatable and can have a good prognosis.
Exophytic Lesion extending above the surface of mucosa
Carcinoma Malignant epithelial tumor
Central within bone
Dysplasia Disorganized growth with no orderly arrangement or shape of cells. A sign of malignancy
Capsule a sac of fibrous connective tissue
Encapsulated surrounded by a capsule
Hyperchromatic cells that are stained intensely when studied under the microscope (Darkly stained than normal cells) . This is a sign of 'Malignant cells'
In Situ A lesion that is situated in one spot only without invading tissues around it. (Confined locally)
Invasion actively spreading to surrounding tissues, deeper tissues and destroying them. A sign of malignancy
Primary lesion A tumor of initial occurance
Secondaries this is the term given to subsequent tumors that are formed due to trasport of tumor cells from the primary tumor.
Metastasis transport or spread of tumor cells from the primary tumor to other sites to form 'secondaries'.
Malignant a lesion when examined by a biopsy and found to have anaplasia, dysplasia, hyperchromatic cells and there is invasion of surrounding tissues. These tumors may have uncontrolled growth, be resistant to treatment, they can metastsize and can recur.
Leukoplakia any white plaque like lesion of oral mucosa, that cannot be wiped off. Actual diagnosis of leukoplakias can be done ONLY BY BIOPSY.
Nevus A flat pigmented lesion of skin or oral mucosa. (similar to a macule) It may be of hereditary origin or may be present at birth as a birth mark. The pigment is 'melanin'
Pleomorphic occurring in various forms
Sarcoma Malignant connective tissue tumor
Undifferentiated Anaplastic, abnormal cell formation.
Odontogenic originating from tooth forming tissues.
Created by: Redabj