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NeuroDisorders 1

test one of bassich

what is gray matter (what makes it up) group of nerve cell bodies clustered in the CNS
what is white matter myelinated axons and dendrites
axons are callled____ in the CNS? PNS? CNS- Tracts PNS- Nerves
Areas of the brain that have concentrations of UMN White matter Axons:Tracts - pyramidal -extrapyramidal
Areas of the brain that have concentrations of UMN GRAY matter -cortex -basal ganglia - cerebellum
Areas of the Brain that have concentrations of LMN GRAY matter -Pons +Medulla - midbrain (Brainstem)
Areas of the Brain that have concentrations of LMN WHITE matter Cranial nerves and spinal nerves
Afferent... AAS --Ass Afferent- Ascending (to CNS)- Sensory,
Efferent... EMD- Eat my d**k Efferent-Motor-Descending (from CNS)
Deficiency of Dopamine results in... insufficient cortical motor output. -Hypokentic dysarthria
importance of myelin allows electrical impulses to travel faster and more efficiently
Automaticity Preserved action that doesn't take thought
Example of automatic tasks stereotypical phrases - recitation tasks - singing
LMN terms PNS, Spinal & Cranial nerves, Final Common Pathway
Pyramidal System (corticobulbar) (I-95) direct route from area 4 to CN nuclei - only 1 synapse
Extrapyramidal System (route 1) -indirect route to CN nuclei - many synapses
Why do we need both routes to be intact for normal speech? The Ex.P system serves to refine the crude intial impulses from area 4 by giving feedback
Areas that have topographical organization: Primary motor cortex, sensory cortex, Supplementary Motor Area (SMA), subthalmic nucleus.
Definition : Topographical Organization when a particular area controls specific muscles in the body
Structures involved in Motor PROGRAMMING -SMA -BG -Lateral cerebellum -Fronto-limbic system -motor cortex (area 4)
Structure involves in Execution -SMA -Cerebellum -Basal Ganglia -Motor cortex (area 4) -Thalamus -brainstem -Motorunits (LMN)
Structures involved in motor Planning -Brocas -Wernikes -Prefrontal cortex -Area6 -SMA -Areas 5&7
Dual Roles in planning Programing and Execution SMA (all 3) - Cerebellum (prg & ex) -BG (pr & ex) - Motor;A4 (pr & ex).
For Aunt Tilly case, Remember: Suspect=Left CVA , area 4 Clues- lang deficits, right paresis Call ambulance, drugs to minimize damage
Ataxic Dysarthria Cerebellum
Unilateral Upper Motor Neuron Dysarthria lower half of area 4 / unilateral acute cerebral hemispheres or subcortical areas
Spastic Dysarthria Bilateral chronic (UMN)
Hypokenetic Dysarthria Basal Ganglia - Substantia Nigra
Flaccid Dysarthria PNS/ CN nuclei or neurmuscular junction
Hyperkenetic Dysarthria Basal Ganglia- Striatum
CN: V Trigeminal Motor- jaw elevation Sensory- head & facial sensation, anterior 2/3 of tongue (pressure), gums &velum
CN: VII Facial Motor- upper face, lower face (cheeks, lips) Sensory- taste to anterior 2/3
CN: IX Glossopharyngeal Motor- soft palate Sensory- taste & pressure of posterior 1/3 of tongue
CN: X Vagus Motor- laryngeal mvmt sensory- none
IX & X share the same nucleus called... Nucleus ambiguus
CN XII Hypoglossal Motor- tongue Sensory- none
What 2 other disorders coexist in a person who has apraxia? Aphasia and Unilateral Upper motor neuron dysarthria
Operculum - aka Insula,- little lid - BG is located under
Cerebellum is responsible for coordination, balance, sequencing
difference between Ataxia and Apraxia Ataxia: problems in motor programming/execution (discordination) Apraxia: problems in motor planning Both: trouble sequencing phonemes (via DDK test)
80/20 - Unilateral UMNs Lower face : cheeks & lips Limbs : Arms & legs tongue
50/50 Bilateral UMNs Upper face: forehead,brows,eye lids Larynx:VFs Pharynx:velum
UMN descript -CNS -Tracts - Decussation
LMS descript -PNS -Nerves (CN & Spinal) -Do Not Decussate
Framework: Environment "environment in which speaking occurs;noise,lighting,communication partners, access.
Framework: Activity "Act/difficulty speaking" Hint: Speaks/speaking. Not an articulator. ex : soft voice, monotone, inflection
Framework: Impairment "weak, imprecise movements/production" Hints: Anatomical body parts,articulators. Physiological measure.
Framework: Participation "everyday speaking situations" Hints: QoL reference, social
Created by: catbait