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68wm6 p2 Ac inf dis

Acute Abdominal Inflammatory Disorders

QuestionAnswer
What are the five categories of laxatives? *Bulk forming *Emollient (Lubricants & softeners) *Hyperosmotic *Saline *Stimulant
What laxatives are used in Tx of acute constipation? *Bulk forming *Stimulant
What laxatives are used in Tx of chronic constipation? *Bulk formin *Hyperosmotic
What laxatives are used for bowel prep? *Hyperosmotic *Saline *Stimulant *(HS2)
How do bulk forming laxatives work? High fiber, absorb h20 to increase bulk, distend bowels to initiate reflex bowel activity
What are bulk forming laxatives indicated for? *Constipation (Acute & Chronic) *IBS *DIVERTICULITIS
What are Osmotic Cathartics (hyperosmotic laxative) indicated for? *Chronic constipation *Bowel prep
How do Osmotic Cathartics (hyperosmotic laxative) work? increases fecal h20 content, bowel distention, increased peristalsis>>evacuation
How do Saline Laxatives work? draws h2o into the colon to increase stool mass, stretch musculature causing increased peristalsis and producing watery stools
What are Saline Laxatives indicated for? *Constipation *Bowel prep
How do Stimulant laxatives work? causes peristalsis via intestinal nerve stimulation ; act on colon by reducing H2o and electrolyte absorption increasing H2o and ions into the intestine
What are Stimulant Laxatives indicated for? *Acute constipation *Bowel prep
What are the general side effects of laxatives? *Nausea *Diarrhea *Abdominal cramps
What are the general contraindications for laxatives? *Hypersensitivity *Persistent abdominal pain *Nausea *Vomiting of unknown cause
ALL laxative tablets should be taken how and with what? Swallowed whole (never crushed or chewed) and with 6 to 8 ounces of water
What should be encouraged as an alternative to laxative use? A healthy, high-fiber diet and increased fluid intake
What can long term use of laxatives lead to? decreased bowel tone and dependency
What is appendicitis? the inflammation of the vermiform appendix located at the tip of the cecum in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) of the abdomen
Who is appendicitis most common in? Most common in adolescents and young adults (mainly men), but can occur at any age
How does appendicitis occur? Occurs when the opening of the appendix becomes obstructed
What is the name of the location where abdominal pain from appendicits generalizes? McBurney's Point
List four S/Sx of appendicitis: *Vomiting *Low-grade fever (99° to 102° F) *Elevated white blood cell count *Abdominal pain/rebound tenderness at McBurneys point *Rigid abdomen *Decreased or absent bowel sounds
Whya are analgesics avoided in appendicitis? Analgesics may mask symptoms
What is Diverticulosis? the presence of pouch-like herniations through the muscular layer of the colon, particularly the sigmoid colon
What is Diverticulitis? the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula
What may diverticulosis be the result of? Chronic constipation or the result of the modern, highly refined, low-residue diet
What can be the result of repeated inflammation of diverticuli? the lumen of the colon narrows and may become obstructed
What can result if diverticulitis remains untreated? Septicemia and septic shock
What will the PT experience if intestinal obstruction from diverticulosis occurs? abdominal distention, nausea and vomiting
What is the test of choice to diagnose diverticulitis? CT scan with oral contrast
What test is done to rule out carcinoma in a PT with diverticula? Colonoscopy
What diagnostic test should NOT be performed on a PT with diverticulitis and why? A patient with acute diverticulitis should not have a barium enema or colonoscopy because of the possibility of perforation and peritonitis
When is surgical management mandatory for diverticular disorders? if obstruction, perforation, abscesses or hemorrhage occur
What is Peritonitis? inflammation of the abdominal peritoneum
What characterizes peritonitis? Severe abdominal pain, where the PT often assumes the supine position with the knees flexed to relax the abdominal muscles; any movement is painful
What position should the PT with peritonitis be placed in and why? Place patient on bed rest in semi-Fowler’s position to help localize purulent exudates in lower abdomen or pelvis
Created by: Shanejqb