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Criminal Justice Chapter 1-4

alternative sentence a sentence that is served in a treatment facility or in community service
conflict perspective a view of crime as one outcome of a struggle among different groups competing for resources in their society
consensus perspective a view of crime that sees laws as the product of social agreement or consensus about what criminal behavior is
corrections the systematic, organized effort by society to punish offenders, protect the public, and change an offender's behavior
crime control model a model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes the efficient arrest and processing of alleged criminal offenders
criminal justice system the interrelation of law enforcement agencies, the courts, the correctional system, and victim services
deviance the violation of a norm
due process model a model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of the justice process
federal courts the system where federal crimes are prosecuted consisting of district courts, appellate courts or circuit courts, and the Supreme Court
mala in se a behavior categorized as morally wrong ("evil in itself")
mala prohibita a statutory crime that reflects public opinion at a moment in time
moral panic the reaction by a group of people based on exaggerated or false perceptions about crime and criminal behavior
norm a rule that makes clear what behavior is appropriate and expected in a particular situation
parole an early release from prison conditional on complying with certain standards while free
probation an alternative to jail or prison where the offender remains in the community under court supervision, usually within the caseload of a probation officer who is an officer of the court
sanctions prescribed consequences intended to reinforce people's conformity to norms
secondary victims someone who experiences sympathetic pain as a result of a primary victim's suffering
social norm a rule that specifies how people are expected to behave
state courts the system where state crimes are prosecuted; it includes both trial and appellate courts
statutory crime an act that is criminal because it's prohibited by law
victim advocate a professional who assists the victim with every aspect of the postvictimization period
victim impact statement a victim's statement about how his experiences with crime affected him
victim services the promotion of victims' rights to participate in criminal proceedings and to enjoy personal safety; sercices include shelters and transitional housing programs, counseling services, and 24-hour hotlines
wedding cake model an explanation of the workings of the criminal justice system that shows how cases get filtered according to the seriousness of the offense
assault and battery a harmful or offensive physical attack by one person upon another
burglary entering another's property with the intent to commit a felony such as larceny
child abuse neglect of and/or violence against children
child neglect chronic and repetitive failure to provide children with food, clothing, shelter, cleanliness, medical care, or protection from harm
Crime Index an official compiled statistical measure of the incident of crime in the United States
crimes against morality specific laws against public order crimes
crimes against persons attack or threats of an attack to a person's body, including murder and manslaughter (taking a life), sexual assault, kidnapping, robbery (theft with or the threat of force), and battery (the intentional unwanted touching of one person by another)
dark figure of crime the group of unreported and unrecorded crimes as revealed by crim victim surveys
drug offenses public order crimes that include the unlawful possession, use, manufacturing, selling, growing, making, or distributing of drugs classified as having potential for abuse
emotional abuse a form of victimization through power or control that harms the victim's sense of self; aka psychological abuse;ex. verbal threats, social isolation, intimidation, exploitation, or routinely making unreasonable demands, terrorizing, &shaming
first-degree murder the most serious kind of murder. to be convicted of 1st-degree murder, an offender must have purposely killed the victim & must have planned the killing at least a short time in advance
immigration offenses violation of federal immigration law, which determines whether a person is an alien and stipulates all the legal rights, duties, and obligations aliens have in the USA
involuntary manslaughter a killing that results from an offender's careless actions
larceny a type of theft that includes both completed and attempted taking of cash or property from a location without attacking or threatening the victim ad without obtaining permission
manslaughter a killing where the offender is less blameworthy than for murder; it usually carries a less severe penalty than murder
mass murder multiple murders that occur at one place and at one time
missing children children not accounted for by their next of kin because they were kidnapped, killed, wandered away due to a developmental disability, or are intentionally missing in order to escape violence at home
motor vehicle theft a property crime that usually doesn't include contact with the offender and accompanying fear or trauma. it's less common than household burglary or larceny
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) a statistical sampling of house-holds and individuals who have been personally victimized by specific crimes
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) a US crime index (not yet fully national in scope) compiled by the FBI and the incidents and arrests
organized crime an ongoing criminal conspiracy that exists to profit from providing illicit goods and services, using or threatening violence to facilitate its criminal enterprise and to maintain monopoly control of illicit markets
physical abuse the condition whereby an individual suffers serious physical injury, including intentionally assaulting, beating, biting, burning, strangulation, hitting, kicking, shaking, or pushing a victim
political crimes violent or nonviolent acts that society perceives as threats to a government's survival
property crimes taking money and/or material goods without the use of force
public order crimes a wide variety of offenses considered immoral or public nuisances,ex.disorderly conduct,disturbing the peace,loitering, public intoxication,panhandling,bigamy, drunk driving,prostitution,obscenity, gambling,&possesion of controlled substances
rape trauma syndrome the 3 phases (acute, outward adjustment, & resolution phase) of symptoms that many victims experience after a sexual assault
robbery a crime against persons where the offender takes personal property from the victim by either using or threatening force
secondary victimization the suffering of a crime victim caused by his subsequent treatment by the police, the courts, or personal acquaintances
self-report surveys where individuals (guaranteed confidentiality) reveal offenses that they have committed but may or may not have been arrested and held accountable for their crimes. These surveys uncover another part of the dark figure of crime
serial murder killing 3 or more people over an extended period of time
sexual victimization forced or coerced sexual intimacy
weapon violations is what type of crime public order crime
sexual violence a range of crimes including vaginal, anal, and oral penetration that can include the use of weapons and foreign objects to torture and terrorize the victim
spree murder killing several people within a fairly narrow period, such as several hours or days
stalking willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly following or harassing another person and making a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or for the safety of his or her family
student bullying a form of victimization where a student is repeatedly exposed to harmful acts from other students over a period of time
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) an annual series of US statistical measures of the incidence of selected crimes reported by police departments and compiled by the FBI
vehicular manslaughter death that results from careless driving
victim surveys interviews with individuals (including but not limited to actual victims) who have been personally affected by specific crimes
victimless crimes often called rimes against public order and considered victimless because they usually have no identifiable victim
voluntary manslaughter killing in the heat of passion
white-collar crime illegal/unethical acts that violate fiduciary responsibility or public trust; committed by someone or organization (usually during legitimate occupational activity) of high or respectable social status for personal or organizational gain
classical school of criminology a system of thought that views the criminal as having free will to choose a criminal path
neoclassical school of criminology recognizes differences in criminal circumstances &assumes that some people, ex children, the insane, and the intellectually deficient, cannot reason. in such cases the CJ system must look at the needs of the offender in determining appropriate punishments
ration choice theory criminals choose to commit crime because they believe the benefits they will derive will overshadow the risks of getting caught
positivist school of criminology views criminal behavior as a product of biological, psychological, & social forces beyond a person's control
atavism the belief that criminals are evolutionally primative or subhuman people characterized by certain "inferior" identifiable physical and mental characteristics
neurotransmitter a chemical secreted by neurons that facilitaes the transmission of information from one neuron to another
psychoses serious mental disorders that cause individuals to be out of touch with reality and unable to cope with the demands of everyday living
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) the standard classification reference used by mental health professionals in the USA
schizophrenia a mental illness characterized by an individual's split from reality
bipolar affective disorder a major mood disorder manifested by bouts of serious depression alternating with periods of extreme elation and exaggerated self-importance
postpartum psychosis a serious mental illness characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and obessive thoughts about the baby (after a baby is born)
psychopathy a psersonality disorder exhibited by a lifelong pattern of antisocial behavior about which the individual has no remorse
intelligence the capacity to learn or comprehend, manifested by the ability to solve problems and adapt to life's everyday experiences
moral reasoning application of a set of ethical principles based on what society views as good versus bad behavior
social learning theory behavior is learned and is maintained or extinguished based on the rewards or punishments associated with it
strain theory extraordinary pressures make people more likely to commit crime
anomie a feeling of alienation or a condition that leaves people feeling hopeless, rootless, cut off, alienated, isolated, disillusioned, and frusterated
life course persistent offenders those who engage in delinquency at young ages and continue their criminal behavior throughout their lives
adolescence-limited offenders young people who participate in antisocial behavior for a limited period of time during adolescence while maintaining school performance and respectful relationships with parents and teachers
social control theory an individual's belief system, the police, and parental supervision are important in preventing individuals from getting into trouble
neutralization theory if people break the law, they overcome their feelings of responsibility through rationalization
containment theory factors that keep behavior in check are personal, such as self-concept, self-control, goal-directedness, conscience, tolerance for frusteration, sense of responsibility, realistic levels of aspiration and identification with lawful norms
social bond theory the social bond people have with society consists of attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
social conflict theory crime is the result of conflict between the wealthy and powerful and the poor and powerless in society
critical theory a branch of social conflict theory concerned with the way in which structural conditions and social inequalities influence crime
feminist criminology the application of feminist thought and analysis to the study of crime
peacemaking criminology a branch of criminology that views crime as a form of violence and urges criminology to advocate a nonviolent, peaceful society
cultural deviance theory adoption of negative and antisocial values learned in neighborhoods and subcultures produces criminal behavior
social disorganization theory explains crime rates by examining city neighborhood characteristics
subculture a group that has some of the same norms, values, and beliefs as members of the dominant, mainstream culture but also other norms, values, and beliefs not held by society at large
culture conflict when the norms of conduct for one group conflict with conduct norms of another group
social process theory criminal behavior results from successive interactions with others and with society's institutions
looking-glass self the idea that if we perceive that others see us in certain ways, we learn to see ourselves in those ways
labeling theory the belief that the social process individuals experience has the potential to define them as "bad" or "good" and that some people become bad because tohers don't believe them to be good
differential association theory criminal behavior is learned during normal social interactions, and the same learning principles are involved in reinforcing criminal and law-abiding behavior
victimology the scientific study of victims, which includes their behaviors, injuries, assistance, legal rights, and recovery
recidivist victims persons who are victimized repeatedly
routine activities theory some individuals' daily activities make them more vulnerable to being crime victimes
rule of law the guiding principle of our legal system, which states that no single person is more powerful than the law
laws formal rules of conduct sanctioned by the state
Hammurabi's Code the earliest known written laws, which were set down by Babylonian King Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE). The core of the code was the principle that violators should suffer punishment equal to their offense
common law the legal system created in England after the Norman Conquest and still used in the USA today
precedent previous court decisions that have binding authority on subsequent cases
constitution a document that specifies the components of a government, the duties of each component, and the limits of their power
statues laws enacted by state legislatures or by Congress
ordinances laws enacted by local governments such as cities and counties
Model Penal Code a suggested code of criminal law drafted by the American Law insitute and used to guide the states in modernizing their laws
case law decisions judges have made in previous court cases
civil law the system of laws sometimes known as the roman system used in many countries that don't use common law system or non-criminal law or law that concerns disputes between individual parties
plaintiff the party who initiates the lawsuit in a civil case
defendant the person against whom criminal charges or a civil lawsuit are filed
torts civil disputes in which one party sues another for the damages the defendant's actions have caused
damages payments a defendant must make to a winngin plaintiff in a civil lawsuit to compensate the plaintiff for the injuries or costs the defendant's actions have caused
criminal law a body of laws where people are punished by the government for specific prohibited actions
double jeopardy the Fifth Amendment right that protects anyone from being tried twice for the same offense
restitution in a criminal case, money a defendant must pay a victim to compensate the victim for damages
felony a serious criminal offense that brings a potential punishment of a year or more in state or federal prison
misdemeanor a criminal offense that is punished by fines or a maximum of a year in a county or city jail
infraction a minor violation of a local ordinance or state law that brings a potential punishment of fines
corpus delicti "the body of the crime"; the specific elements that must be proved to convict someone of a specific offense
criminal intent the degree to which a defendant must have intended his or her actions or the consequences of those actions
actus reus the specific act required to convict a person for a specific crime
mens rea the level of criminal intent, or the mental state, required to convict a person of a specific crime
strict liability offenses crimes that have no mens rea requirement; a person who commits the requisite actus reus may be convicted of the offense regardless of intent
inchoate crimes crimes that have been begun but not completed
duress a defense where the defendant claims he or she was forced or coerced into committing a crime
necessity a defense where the defendant must demonstrate that he or she had to commit the crime to avoid more severe consequences
entrapment law enforcement officers or agents trap or trick a person into committing a crime that the person would not otherwise have committed
insanity a defense where the defendant admits committing the criminal act but claims not to be culpable due to mental illness
not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) a verdict where the jury determines that the defendant is not criminally culpable due to mental illness
M'Naghten Rule a standard for insanity that asks whether the defendant was unable to understand the nature of his actions or to distinguish right from wrong
irresistable impulse test a standard for insanity that asks whether the defendant had a mental disease or defect, as a result of which the defenndant was unable to control his or her behavior
Durham Rule a standard for insanity that asks whether the defendant's conduct was the product of a mental disease or defect
American Law Institute Rule a standard for insanity that asks whether the defendant lacked the substantial capacity to appreciate the criminality of the act or conform to the law
guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) verdict for a person recognized to be mentally ill but still considered criminally responsible for the crime
consent a defense against criminal liability because the victim actually gave the defendant permission to engage in the prohibited acts
infancy a defense that sometimes protects very young offenders from criminal liability because they do not understand the consequences of their actions
Created by: 530848841


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