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introduction to comm

introduction to communication disorders

What is language performance? actual make of language
What may affect language performance? fatigue or distraction
language competence innate and perfect knowledge of rules of grammar
language competence is already there at birth
if language competence is not there at birth there will be limited mental capacity to understand language
base or root morphemes words not broken into smaller units but where other morphemes may be added
expressive language made
an example of expressive language speaking
receptive language understood
an example of receptive language listening
phonetics production perception and classification of speech sounds
phonology study of speech sounds and sound patterns to make words
phonology broader rules and ways that govern sound patterns, acquisition and use, and knowledge about sounds
resonance when structures of throat, mouth, and nose change sound the larynx makes
language social tool, shared code for representing ideas through use of arbitrary symbols and rule-goverened combinations of symbols
sensorineural hearing loss inner ear, auditory nerve sending sound impaired
sensorineural hearing loss may be congenital and hereditary
anoxia delivery of speech sound draw out due to lack of oxygen
anoxia may be from measles, mumps, and chicken pox
the effect on communication of sensorineural hearing loss depends on degree from mild to profound
what do seventeen percent of the United States population have communication disorder
communication is more than just spoken words
communication way of social behavior affecting actions of each person
most important speech structure larynx
where is the larynx located in the neck
larynx has vocal fords that vibrate when air from lungs goes through
articulate when various structures such as the tongue and lips make modified laryngeal sound into speech sounds
phone single speech sound
phoneme many production of single speech sound
phoneme is important for meaning
the phoneme is the building blocks of speech
linguistics study of language, its structure and rules which govern structure
morphology study of structures
morphology how words are made out of basic language elements
morpheme smallest important unit of language
each morpheme is different
morphemes form words
free morpheme may still stand alone and have meaning
free morphemes are base or root words
bound morpheme cannot show meaning alone
a bound morpheme must be put with a free morpheme
bound morphemes are also called grammatical morphemes
syntax arrangement of words to make meaningful sentences
syntax collection of rules of the way or set of the sentence
syntax is not random or pointless sentences
semantics study of the meaning of language
semantic component meaning words, phrases, sentences show
content theory structure or form of language has content or meaning
problem with content theory we should know what every word means yet sometimes listener does not know fully
cognitive process meaning whole total of mental images, ideas and thoughts that language moves in listeners and readers
what is wrong with the cognitive process? it is hard to study private thoughts
instrumental get what we want, verbal ask
regulatory try to get others to do what we want them to do, commands
interactional get others in social interaction
verbal behavior way of social behavior kept by actions of verbal community
consequence what listener or listeners say or do
conductive hearing loss sound transmission from outer or middle ear to the inner ear is impaired
conductive hearing loss may be due to middle ear infection of cold or allergy
oostosclerosis low bones don't vibrate normally because of growth
stuttering large amounts of large long times of dysfluency due to tension or strugge
in stuttering you could repeat parts of words or whole word
stuttering mainly begins in the early years, passed down from family
if untreated stuttering may continue into the adult years
people with stuttering leave social events, ignore hard words, select jobs where they mainly don't talk
cluttering impaired fluency and fast but disordered articulation due to troubled ideas
in cluttering the speech is unclear
dementia general word describing progressive diseases in nervous system
one form of dementia is Alzheimer's
aphasia language loss
the degree of aphasia varies among people
people with aphasia have trouble talking, knowing spoken language, and writing
stroke interrupts ove of blood to different parts of brain
language disorders difficulty in language acquisition
language disorder in child child may fail to get any oral language (rare)
motor speech disorders move of speech object hurt makes nerve damage
motor speech disorder areas lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate
motor speech disorders mainly affect adults with neurological problem
phonological disorder error of phonemes from patterns or clusters
most frequently treated disorder in school-age children articulation
vocal nodules are seen? in children
vocal nodules small nodes form on vocal folds, make breathy and hoarse voice
dysphonia may hurt one or more things
dysphonia is all other types of voice disorders
dysphonia may affect pitch and loudness
dysphonia is mainly due to vocally abusive actions including loud talking, shouting, cheering, and screaming
aphonia is the complete loss of voice
aphonia is rare but extreme
when you have aphonia how do you communicate? you whisper
aphonia is mainly caused by emotional trauma
descriptive classification clinician looks at one part of communication disordered and says different types of troubles person goes through
acquired there has been a time of normal communication before loss
congenital disorders seen at time of birth or close after
congenital disorders include genetic birth defects, physical changes, brain damage, intellectual damage
functional disorders idiopathic, no origin known
functional disorders have no demonstrable organic or neurologic cause
organic disorders thought to be made by problem in neurophysiological part of speech
etiology study of causes of diseases and disorders
how are communication disorders classified? known or thought causes ages where mainly happens different part
people with speech disorder may not be able to say what they wish
people with speech disorder may not be able to say all that they want
people with speech disorder may not be able to sat what they want as promptly and smoothly
listeners mainly avoid someone with a speech disorder
Van Riper's disordered speech leaves from other person's speech, puts attention to itself, interferes with communication and makes stress in speaker and listener
audiology study and understanding of normal and disordered hearing
audiology rehab of those with hearing troubles
speech-language pathology job based on study and understanding of human communication and disorders
what is normal hearing essential for typical acquisition of speech and language behavioir
normal hearing is essential for speech perception in children, if it is not perceived the speech will be difficult
normal hearing is essential for monitoring one's speech production
hearing is essential for normally gotten verbal communication
prosody variations in rate, pitch, loudness, stress, intonation, and rhythm of speech
prosody is in both voice and fluency
one thing that a speech, language, and hearing scientist does do research
speech language and hearing scientist does looks at trends
speech language and hearing scientist does makes ideas for widening knowledge
speech language and hearing scientist does looks into biological, physical, physiological processes
speech language and hearing scientist does looks at impact on psychological, social, and other factors
speech language and hearing scientist does works with similar workers to make approaches to diagnose and treat
what type of degree does a speech language and hearing scientist have bachelor's in science, math, linguistics, psycholog, hearing sciences
a speech language and hearing scientist may have a master's degree depending on interest
a speech language and hearing scientist may have a doctoral degree depending on interest
audiologists work long-term care place
audiologists work physician's office
audiologists work public or private school
audiologists work hospital
audiologists work rehab
audiologists work research lab
audiologists work residential health facility
audiologists work community clinics
audiologists work colleges
audiologists work private clinic
audiologists work health department
audiologists work state or federal government agency
what do audiologists do test and diagnose hearing loss
audiologists test balance
audiologists treat loss by giving a hearing aid or rehab
audiologists work with people across the ages
what type of degree do audiologists need? bachelor's in communication sciences and disorders
audiologists may need a degree PHD for research
audiologists need a state licensure
speech language pathologists work home health agency
speech language pathologists work adult day care
speech language pathologists work public or private school
speech language pathologists work hospital
speech language pathologists work rehab
speech language pathologists work research lab
speech language pathologists work short term and long term care
speech language pathologists work community clinic
speech language pathologists work college
speech language pathologists work private practice
speech language pathologists work state and local health department
speech language pathologists work state or federal government agency
speech language pathologist tests and diagnoses speech, language, cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders
speech language pathologist works with people from all ages
speech language pathologists need clinical fellowship year
speech language pathologists need state licensure, ccc
what type of degree do speech-langauge pathologists need? bachelor's in communication sciences and disorders
type of degree for speech-language pathologists master's in communication sciences and disorders
speech-language pathologists may get a doctorate degree
turns and looks in direction of sounds seven months to one year
notices toys that make sounds four to six months
recognized words for common items like cup, shoe, book, juice seven months to one year
vocalized excitement and displeasure four to six months
seems to recognize voices and quiets if crying birth to three months
enjoys games like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake seven months to one year
babbling has both long and short groups of sounds seven months to one year
cries differently for different needs birth to three months
begins to respond to requests such as come here or want more seven months to one year
startles to loud sounds birth to three months
uses gestures to communicate such as waving, holding arms out to be picked up seven months to one year
listens when spoken to seven months to one year
moves eyes in direction of sounds four to six months
has one or two words around first birthday but sounds may not be clear seven months to one year
babbling sounds more speech-like with many different sounds inkling p b and m four to six months
smiles when sees you birth to three months
pays attention to music four to six months
quiets or smiles when spoken to birth to three months
users speech or noncrying sounds to get and keep attention seven months to one year
makes gurgling sounds when left alone and when playing with you four to six months
makes pleasure sounds such as coo and goo birth to three months
imitates different speech sounds seven months to one year
responds to changes in tone of voice four to six months
increases or decreases sucking action in response to sound birth to three months
chuckles and laughs four to six months
seven months to one year babbling long and short groups of sounds
seven months to one year use speech and no crying sounds to get and keep attention
seven months to one year uses gestures to communicate such as waving or holding arms out
seven months to one year copies direct speech sounds
seven months to one year one or two words around the first birthday but sounds may not be clear
seven months to one year enjoys games such as peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake
seven months to one year turns and looks in direction of sounds
seven months to one year listens when talked to
seven months to one year recognize words for common things such as cup, shoe, book, and juice
seven months to on year starts to respond to requests such as come here and want more
four to six months babbling sounds more speech like with a lot of air sounds with p b and m
four to six months chuckle and laugh
four to six months vocalized excitement and displeasure
four to six months gurgling noises when alone and playing with you
four to six months move eyes in direction of sounds
four to six months responds to tone of voice changes
four to six months notices toys that make sound
four to six months pays attention to music
birth to three months makes happy sounds such as coo and goo
birth to three months cries differently for different wants
birth to three months smiles when sees you
birth to three months startles to loud noise
birth to three months quiets and smiles when talked to
birth to three months recognize voice
birth to three months quiets if crying
birth to three months raises or lowers sucking action in reaction to sounds
what does the internal carotid artery do? gives blood to the brain
there are two internal carotid arteries anterior cerebral artery and the middle cerebral artery
external carotid artery gives blood to muscles of face, neck, and mouth sides of skull and dura mater
blood supply main suppliers carotid and vertebral arteries
the brain is well protected by the skull to lower trauma
spaces in the brain ventricles with cerebrospinal fluid
the brain is covered with layers of membrane
the three layers of membrane in the brain are dura mater arachnoid and pia mater
extrapyramidal pathway fibers go indirect route to final destination
pyramidal pathway bundle of nerve fibers start in motor cortex and travel right to brain steam and spinal cord
projection fibers make pathways to and from brainstem and spinal cord
corpus callosum connects two hemispheres at base
commisural fibers connect corresponding areas of two hemispheres
association fibers connect area within hemisphere
occipital located at lower back area of head
occipital mainly deals with vision
Wernicke's aphasia person speaks fluently and doesn't make sense
what is the temporal lobe important for? speech language and hearing
the temporal lobe is the primary auditory cortex
the temporal lobe has Wernicke's area, understand and make speech
primary auditory cortex gets sound stimuli from acoustic nerve and processes what ear hears
what is the main sensory area? parietal lobe
parietal lobe integrates pain, touch, temperature, and pressure
somesthetic integrates pain, touch, temperature and pressure
what are the two areas of the parietal lobe? supramarginal and angular
if there is hurt to the angular there wil be reading, writing, and word finding problems
there are how many hemispheres of the brain? two
there are how many lobes in each hemisphere? four
a lobe is an area
the frontal lobe is the number one lobe for production
the motor lobe is important for movement
the brocai's area is the upper motor center
the cerebrum is also known as the cerebral cortex
cerebrum most important for speech, language, hearing
the cerebrum is the largest cortex
the cerebrum has the gyrus
where is the gyrus located? ridge on cortex
where is the sulcus located? the shallow valley
where is the fissure located? deeper valley
the cerebellum is a major part of central nervous system and movement
where is the cerebellum located? behind the brainstem, below the cerebrum
the cerebellum regulates balance, posture, the motor
the basal ganglia is part of the extrapyramidal system
the basil ganglia brain to various muscles
the basil ganglia lies deep in brain helping integrate motor impulses
where is the midbrain located? above the pons
the midbrain houses auditory and visual relay stations
pons bridges the two halves of the cerebellum
where is the medulla located> upper part of spinal cord
medulla controls breathing and other important functions
the central nervous system consists of the spinal cord and brain
central nervous system is the most important for speech, language, and hearing
the central nervous system has the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum
language problems in a young child may be clear at an early age
language problems in a young child delay babbling, first for, put words into phrases and make grammar sentences
language problems in a young child once one way of saying a sentence is learned the child will fail to widen content, articles and prepositions
language problems in a young child will result in the child leaving social situations and the child will not use the mastered words
a child with language problems is still healthy and normal
a child with language problems has academic trouble mainly in reading and writing
parasympathetic mobilized body back to relaxation
speech in parasympathetic slow and soft
sympathetic moves body to deal with emergencies
speech in sympathetic fast and loud
autonomic nervous system controls internal environment in body
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there? thirty one pairs
spinal nerves control various bodily activities and automatic functions such as breathing
what is the hypoglossal nerve xii concerned with? the motor functions
hypoglossal nerve xii controls tongue movements
what is the accessory nerve xi concerned with? head and shoulder moves
accessory nerve xi regulates some muscles of pharynx and soft palate
what is the recurrent laryngeal nerve important for? speech
the recurrent laryngeal nerve regulates what? intrinsic muscles in larynx
if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is damaged no voice or hoarse voice
vagus nerve x is also known as the wandering nerve
vagus nerve x through chest, stomach, and cranium
glossopharyngeal nerve ix helps move muscles in pharynx
vestibular acoustic nerve xiii balance and sound
what does the facial nerve xii focus on? sensory and motor
facial nerve xiii controls variety of facial moves and expressions
what does the trigeminal nerve v focus on? sensory and motor
trigeminal nerve v largest cranial
trigeminal nerve v forehead, nose, eyes, upper lip, jaw, tongue, and cheeks
how many important cranial nerves are there? seven
cranial nerves either enter or exit the skull (cranium)
cranial nerves are numbered how? in order by vertical way in which they exit the skull
peripheral nervous system collection of nerves outside skull and spinal column
peripheral nervous system sensory and motor impulses
peripheral nervous system cranial, spinal, peripheral, and autonomic functions
efferent flow of information out of the cell body
afferent flow of information to the cell body
axons send out impulses from cell body to other cells
dendrites get and conduct impulses from cells to cell body
neuron basic unit of the nervous system
the cell body is the nucleus
what does the nervous system consist of? brain, spinal cord, all other nerves and sense organs
lips important in making labial sounds
biological function of the tongue sense taste and move food
non-biolgical function of the tongue helps make speech sounds
class 3 malocclusion upper jaw is back and the lower jaw is out
class two malocclusion upper jaw is out and the lower jaw is back
class one malocclusion normal alignment of arches
occlusions when two dental arches meet
teeth upper arch is maxillary and the lower arch is mandible
mandible lower arch of teeth
maxillary upper arch of teeth
the jaw is also known as the mandible
the jaw is hinged where to the temporal bone, the tempromandibular joint
the jaw is located where? lower teeth and the floor of the mouth
the soft palate is also known as the velum
soft palate soft muscular structure where oropharynx and nasopharynx meet
uvula small, cone shaped tip of the soft palate
front part of the maxillary bone is premaxilla
the premaxilla is the four upper front teeth incisors
the palutineprocess is the mane bone
if the mane bone doesn't come together it is cleft palate
hard palate bony roof of mouth
what is the hard palate made up of? maxille or pair of bones
what are the moveable parts in articulation the soft palate, tongue, and lips
the soft palate, tongue, and lips play what? a large role in articulating and shaping speech sounds
what are the three parts of the pharynx laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx
laryngopharynx above the larynx end at tongue bas
oropharynx up to soft palate
the laryngopharynx and the oropharynx create resonance
nasopharynx ends where two nasal cavities start
the nasopharynx makes resonance n sounds
where is tone made? in larynx goes to pharynx which is a tract
what makes articulation? soft palate, tongue, and lips
articulation move of joined anatomic parts to and make of speech sounds by these moves
articulation in speech science and pathology act of saying something clearly
articulation in anatomy connection of movable parts
nasality affects resonance quality
nasality added to sound when sound goes through the nose
what may breathiness be due to? vocal nodules
breathiness folds do not completely close
breathiness when with harshness it makes a hoarse voice
harshness irregular vibration of folds
when harshness is combined with breathiness it makes hoarseness
resonance change of sound by structures where sound passes
what is vocal quality affected by? mass length and tension of folds
vocal quality is affected by subglottal air pressure
vocal quality is affected by physical symmetry
vocal quality is affected by frequency intensity and amplitude of vibrations
amplitude extent of vocal fold movement
intensity force with which folds open or close
thinner, shorter fold higher frequency and higher pitch
longer, thicker fold lower frequency and lower pitch
what determines fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration? elasticity tension and mass
greater frequency of vocal fold means higher the pitch
how is pitch determined? frequency of vocal fold vibration
pitch is measured in heartz (Hz)
thickening vocal folds lower pitch
thinning vocal folds higher pith
cricothyroid muscle lengthens and tenses folds
thin fold high pitch
thick fold low pitch
vocal folds abducted bring the folds apart
vocal folds abducted posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
vocal folds abducted open when folds abducted glottis
vocal folds adducted bring the folds together
vocal folds adducted lateral cricoarytenoid
vocal folds adducted interarytenoid
vocal folds adducted work together
thyroarytenoid muscles basic structure vibrates and makes sound
thyroarytenoid muscles have two muscles masses external and internal
cricoarytenoid joint where arytenoids connect to cricoid
cricoarytenoid joint allows circular and sliding movements
cricoarytenoid joint vocal cords open and close
larynx part of breathing respiratory, tract with vocal cords making sound
larynx is located between the pharynx and trachea
the larynx is two inch long tube in neck
together these movements make particular vowel and consonant sounds lips, tongue, and jaw
these adjust tone of sound through vocal cords throat, mouth, nasal cavity
where is the voice box located? in the larynx
voice box air goes through the vocal cords
voice box two thin membranes pulled tight to let air pass only small gap
air force is the cords vibrate to make sound
the tighter the cords the higher the pith
lungs are in what system pulmonary
lungs are the essential organ for respiration
lungs push air up through windpipe and voice box out through nose and mouth
lungs are the upper and lower airways
trachea tube-like portion of breathing respiratory tract connecting voice box larynx with bronchial lung parts
upper airways mouth nose and upper throat
diaphragm where the lungs rest
diaphragm floor of chest cavity
how many pairs of ribs are there 12
rib cage thoracic cage and chest
inhalation and exhalation make rhythmic breathing cycle
exhalation is part of the respiratory system
exhalation breathing out
inhalation is part of the respiratory system
inhalation breathing in
fluency makes communication
fluency the easy,smooth,flowing,mainly effortless speech
when is fluency best judged? when speaker keeps talking
what does effective communication require? fluency
child's realization of disorder may not know at first but will figure it out soon
child's realization of disorder frustrated, humiliated, embarrassed, socially isolated, and less self confidence
child with communication disorder is teased many times
what is the stat for speech, voice, language disorder? six percent
what is the hearing loss disorder stat? eleven percent
what is the main cause of language disorder in an adult damage to brain in the left hemisphere brain tumor
intraverbals set of verbal responses stimulated by speaker's own before verbal responses
echoics copy verbal responses stimuli is the speech of another person
tact group of verbal responses that describe and talk on things and events around the speaker
tacts are socially reinforced with a smile, nod, or an alike statement
mand functional unity made by deprivation or need
mand is physiological need from thirst or hunger
audience in Skinner's analysis it is the relation between the speaker and listener
punisher event after response making response less likely in future
reinforcer event after response making response more likely to happen in future
functional unit class or group of verbal responses made in similar times and get similar endings
pragmatics study of rules that govern language use in social times
referent theory of meaning meaning of word is thing, person, event to which it refers
referent theory of meaning is wrong because there are many words with no clear meaning
surface structure actual arrangement of words through syntactic order
surface structure phrase and sentence printed or heard
deep structure abstract
deep structure rules for making sentences
Created by: ricecakes



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