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Chapter Five

Social psych

self-contept the content of the self that, is our knowledge about who we are
self-awareness the act of thinking about ourselves
independent view of the self a way of defining oneself in terms of ones own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
interdependent view of the self a way of defining oneself in terms of ones relationships to other people; recognizing that ones behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings and actions of others
introspection the process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings. and motives
self-wareness theory the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
causal theories theories about the causes of ones own feelings and behaviors
reasons-generated attitude change attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for ones attitude; people assume their attitudes match the reason that are plausible and easy to verbalize
self-perception theory the theory that when out attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which occurs
intrinsic motivation the desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
overjustification effect the tendency of people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
task-contingent rewards rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
performance-contingent rewards rewards that are based on how well we perform a task
two-factor theory of emotion the idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it
misattribution of arousal the process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
appraisal theories of emotion theories holding that emotions result from people's interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
fixed mindset the idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change
growth mindset the idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
social comparison theory the idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
downward social comparison comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability
upward social comparison comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
social tuning the process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes
impression management the attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
ingratiation the process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status
self-handicapping the strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that is they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
extrinsic motivation the desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressure, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
When asked "who am i?" a child is most likely to respond im a nine year old
what is most likely an accurate view of the self in people in eastern cultures the interdependent view
Chen is form China. He is most likely to have a/as outside perspective on the self
according to Daryl Bems self perception theory when internal cues about attitudes or personality are weak, ambiguous, or uninterpretable, people infer their own internal states by observing their own overt behavior
the act of thinking about ourselves is called self-awareness
giving teenagers extra privileges in exchange for doing household chores will probably not produce the overjustification effect because intrinsic interest in this activity is initially low
which type of rewards are more likely to lead to the overjustification effect task-contingent rewards
the two factors in schachter two-factor theory of emotion are physiological arousal and seeking a label that explains the arousal
which of the following demonstrates the misattribution of arousal you panic in the belief that you will fail an exam after taking two caffeine tablets to get you through an "all-nighter:
what is the main difference between the two-factor theory of emotion and the appraisal theories of emotion the appraisal theories do not acknowledge the role of cognitive interpretations of events in the experience of emotion
which of the following is true about self-control we are better at it when we are well rested
which of the following theories begins with the supposition that people have a need to evaluate their opinions and abilities social comparison theory
which of the following is an example of ingratiation complimenting your professor on his choice of ties today
which of the following is true about introspection we do not rely on this source of information as often as we think we do
deciding that you are in a bad mood because it is monday is an example of a(n) causal theory
which of the following demonstrates the overjustification effect an engineer who loved to solve mechanical problems as a child now views them as dreary tasks
participants in a study by schachter and singer who unwittingly took epinephrine, a drug that causes arousal, felt angry when filling out an insulting questionnaire in the presence of another angry individual because they experienced arousal and sought out an explanation or label for that arousal in the situation
according to ___theory , when we attend to ourselves we compare our current actions to our internal values self-awareness
writing a list of explanations for why people chose their romantic partners may decrease temporarily their love for their partners due to reasons-generated attitude change
research has found that self-recognition, a rudimentary self-concept, develops at around ___ of age 18 months
in order to gain important self-knowldge, people choose to compare themselves to others who are similar to them on the important attribute or dimension
while self-handicapping may prevent unflattering attributions for out failures, it often has the negative consequence of causing the poor performance that is feared in the first place
enjoyment is to ___motivation as reward is to ____motivation intrinsic;extrinsic
we use ___social comparison when we want to better ourselves and we use ___social comparison when we want to feel better about ourselves upward;downward
when we want people to from a particular impression of ourselves we engage in impression management
according to festingers social comparison theory when will people compare themselves with other people and with whom do they compare themselves when they DO NOT have an objective standard for comparison, when they are uncertain about themselves, and with people who are similar to them
wilson et al found that the decisions people make following reasons-generated attitude change are ones that people tend to regret
Participants in nisbett and wilsons experiment reported that a distracting noise had affected their rating of a film when, in fact, it had not. These results may be explained by concluding that participants generated a faulty causal theory
rose marie once founded painting to be an enjoyable hobby. now that she works as a commercial artist, however she rarely paints in her spare time. Rose marie might begin to enjoy painting again if she focuses on the intrinsic reasons for painting and distance herself from the external rewards she receives from her job
Csikszentmihalyi an Figurski asked participants to wear beepers, and upon being beeped several times a day, list their thoughts and activities, their results indicated that the vast majority of individuals daily thoughts were about mundane chores and task
studies indicate that all of the following animals may have a redumentary self-concept EXCEPT cats
when it comes to the outside and insider perspectives on the self and people in east asian and western cultures people in both cultures can adopt either perspective, but the default state people tend to adopt differs
according to the self-regulatory resource model, self control is an unlimited resource false
women are joining the workforce in japan in record numbers, and more women are postponing of forgoing marriage in favor of careers
according to self-awareness theory we become self-conscious, in the sense that we become objective, judgmental observers of ourselves true
dweck uses the term___to refer to the idea that abilities are malleable qualities that can be cultivated and grown growth mindset
self-awarenessis particularly aversive when it reminds people of their shortcomings
it is impossible to praise children too much for their efforts false
which of the following people is engaged in social tuning charlie, who is adopting the same views as his date
resent research suggests that the energy that we spend when exerting self-control comes from true
Created by: aelayan21