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General Biology 1001

General Biology at LSUE Chapter 2

What is matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass.
All matter (both living and non-living)are composed of how many naturally-occurring elements? 92
What are elements? Substances that cannot be broken down to simpler substances with different chemical or physical properties.
What are the six elements that make up 95% of the body weight of organisms? Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. (CHNOPS)
What are atoms? The smallest unit of an element that displays the properties of the element.
What do atoms contain? Specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
What are protons? Positively charged particles.
What are neutrons? Neutral particle.
What are electrons? Negatively charged particles, located in orbitals outside the nucleus.
What is an atomic mass? Sum of protons and neutrons.
What is an atomic number? The number of protons.
What are isotopes? Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons and therefore have different atomic masses.
What do electrons occupy? Obitals within variouse energy levels (or electron shells) near or distant from the nucleus of the atom.
What is an orbital? The volume of space where an electron is most likely to be found; an orbital can contain no more than 2 electrons.
What happens when atoms absorb energy during photosynthesis? Electrons are boosted to higher energy levels. When the electrons return to their original energy level, the released energy is converted into chemical energy.
What is the octet rule? The innermost electron shell of an atom is complete with 2 electrons; all other shells are complete with 8 electrons.
Atoms will _____, _____, or _______ electrons in order to have 8 electrons in an electron shell. give up, accept, or share
What is a compound? When atoms of two or more different elements bond together.
What is a molecule? The smallest part of a compound that has properties of the compound.
What does a formula tell you? The number of each kind of atom in a molecule. (ex. Glucose, C6H12O6)
What is an ionic bond? Electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom. Thus by losing or gaining electrons, atoms fill outer shells, and are more stable.
What is an ion? Charged particles that carry a negative or postive charge.
What is a covalent bond> Two atoms that share electrons so each atom has an octet of electrons in the outer shell.
What is a nonpolar covalent bond? The sharing of electrons is equal; the electrons are not attracted to either atom to a greater degree.
What is a polar covalent bond? The sharing of electrons is unequal.
What is a hydrogen bond? The attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen to a slightly negative atom.
Water has a high _______ capacity. Heat
What is a calorie? The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree C.
Water has a high heat ________. Evaporation
Water is a _______. Solvent
What is a solvent? Liquid portion of a solution that servers to dissolvea solute.
What is a solution? Fluid (the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid (the solute).
Ionized or polar molecules that are attracted to water are called _____________. Hydrophilic ("water loving")
Nonionized or nonpolar molecules that cannot attract water are called _____________. Hydrophobic ("water fearing")
What is cohesion? It allows water to flow freely without molecules separating.
What is adhesion? The ability to adhere to polar surfaces.
When water ionizes or dissociates it releases a small but equal number of what? Hydrogen (H+)ions and Hydroxide (OH-) ions.
What is an acid? Molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and to lower it's pH numerically.
What are bases? Molecules that take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions.
What does the pH scale indicate? Acidity and basicity (alkalinity) of a solution.
What is a pH? The measurment of free hydrogen ions, expressed as a negative logarithm of the H+ concentration.
What is a buffer? Substances or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing it's relative acidity and basicity.
Created by: 100001939708535