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Intro to Forensics

Introduction to Forensic Science- people, parts of a crime lab, etc

Forensic Science Application of science to criminal and civil laws
Mathieu Orfila Founder of forensic toxicology (poisons)
Alphonse Bertillion Devised firstscientific system of personal identification. Used physical measurements
Francis Galton Conducted first difinitive study of fingerprints and their classification
Leone Lattes Devised procedure to determine blood type (A, B, O) from dried bloodstains
Calvin Goddard Used a comparison microscope to determine if a particular gun fired a bullet (ballistics)
Albert Osborn Developed fundamental principles of document examination
Walter McCrone Used microscope and other analytical methodologies to examine evidence. Ex: fibers
Hans Gross Wrote first treatise describing application of scientific principles to criminal investigation. Ex: organized crime lad, trained professionals, special equipment, etc.
Edmund Locard Incorporated Gross' principles into first workable crime lab
Locard's Exchange Principle When a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross transfer of evidence occurs
Sir Alec Jeffreys 1984, developed first DNA profiling test
Why, in the past few years, has there been an increase in crime labs around the country? (3 reasons) -Supreme Court decisions in the 1960's responsible for polics placing greater emphasis on scientific evidence. -Drug specimens -DNA profiling
What are the 5 basic categories of tech support for crime labs? Physical Science, Biology, Firearms, Document, Photographic
Physical Science Unit Identifies and compares physical evidence using physics, geology, and/or chemistry)
Biology Unit Investigates blood samples, body fluids, hair, fiber samples, insects, etc.
Firearms Unit Investigates discharged bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition
Document Unit Handwriting analysis and other questined document issues
Photographic Unit Photographic techniques for recording and examining physical evidence
Optional Services in a crime lab Toxicology, latent fingerprint, polygraph, voiceprint analysis, evidence collection
Toxicology Unit Examines body fluids and organs for presense od drugs and poison
Latent Fingerprint Unit Processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints
Polygraph Unit Conducts polygraph tests
Voiceprint Analysis Attempts to tie a recorded voice to a suspect
Evidence Collection Unit Collect and preserve physical evidence; in smaller units police men train to do this job
Expert Witness Individual who court determines possesses knowledge relevent to the trial that is not expected of the average person
Expert Opinion An expert witness is the only witness able to give an opinion as to the significance of their findings
Train Law Enforcement Forensic Scientists also train law enforcement professionals in proper recognition, collection, and preservation of physical evidence
Frye v United States Established Frye Standard; guiidelines for who is an expert witness. Evidence must be generally accepted by scientific community
Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc Established Daubert Criteria for Admissibility; trial judges ultimately responsible for admissibility and validity of scientific evidence
Daubert Criteria for Admissibility (5 standards) - Can it be tested? -Has technique been subject to peer review and/or publication -What is the technique's rate of error? - Existance and maintenance of standards -Widespread acceptance
Special Forensic Science Services Forensic Pathology, Anthropology, Entomology, Psychiatry, Odontology, Computer Science, and Engineering
Forensic Pathology Autopsies; cause of death (medical examiner)
Forensic Anthropology Skeletal Remains
Forensic Entomology Insects; insect eggs
Forensic Psychiatry Human behavior (profilers)
Forensic Odontology Dental impressions/bite marks- how they got Bundy
Computer Science Digital evidence
Forensic Engineering Structural failures; accidents
Created by: rachael94