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N.I.C Prep

studying for the N.I.C

QuestionAnswer
A derogatory term for a deaf person used mainly by those who have a pathological view towards deafness. It has a negative connotation that the person is broken and needs fixing. Hearing impaired
A term used for someone who is not completely deaf, but has some hearing loss. Hard of Hearing
means that they are apart of the deaf culture and see themselves as part of the deaf culture, that world is what they identify with. The term deaf means that the person cannot hear. Deaf
Interpreting Spoken English into ASL (American Sign Language) Voice to sign Interpreting
Translating Spoken English into MCE (Manually Coded English) Voice to Sign Transliterating
Interpreting ASL into Spoken English Sign to Voice Interpreting
Translating MCE into Spoken English Sign to Voice Transliterating
A professional communicator who facilitates between two different languages. Interpreter
American Sign Language ASL
Signs that are invented by using a letter from the manual alphabet as the handshape for the sign. For example: “world,” “family, ” and “class”. All of these words use a letter for the signing of the word. Initialized Signs
Systems that use the articulation of the hands to mediate a message between people. Example: ASL Manual Communication
A form of communication used to convey ones feelings or emotions through gestures without speech Pantomime
What is the role of an interpreter To mediate communication between people of at least two different languages, and cultures and multiple group identities
Is it ever appropriate to indicate environmental noises? When? Why or why not? Yes it is ok to indicate environmental noises when they are preventing an interpreter from doing their job.
While interpreting, how will you know if you are using the best mode of communication? by watching consumer’s facial expressions, eye contact, body language
“Scripts” that we learn from life experience which help us predict how to act and how others will act in new. Schema
Deaf individuals are viewed as disabled and imperfect needing to be “fixed.” Pathological view of deafness
Ways people tend to organize their schema Physical Characteristics, Social roles, social interactions, Psychological characteristics, Memberships/associations
Registers Frozen, Formal, Consultative, Informal or casual, Intimate,
Frozen Text the text is the same each time it is rendered. Ex: Lord's Prayer, National Anthem. used for Formal Settings. No turn taking. Rate and volume is slowed slightly, signs and speech clearly enunciated.
Formal Text 1 speaker addresses large group of listeners,no turn-taking. EX: minister giving sermon, presidential welcome address. Sentence structure is formal register. Rate and Volume- enunciation, deliberate slower-than-normal rate. Goals to inspire, teach, honor
Consultative Text One of the individuals has "expert" status about the topic. Used for one-on-on, small groups.
Informal or Casual Text participants have equal status. Ex: neighbors, church members. Used everywhere. Some slang, fragments. Rapid and less precise in enunciation
Intimate Text Communication exchanges that take place between individuals who have a shared history or experiential base that influences the communication dynamics. Ex: inside jokes. vocab structure is incomplete sentences
An attitude based on pathological thinking resulting in a negative stigma toward anyone who does not hear Audism
Feel that being different than the "ideal" is bad. Pejorative view of the minority group
the result of seeing the world from your own frame, thus assuming that members of different groups want to be like your own. "Fix it" mentality Reciprocity of perspective
They are incapable of knowing what is best for them and need others to help make decisions and take care of them Members of group are innocent/childlike
desire to take members of the minority group "under their wing", assuming a "know it all" stance Paternalism
expectation that minority group members should make regular expressions of appreciation and gratitude for all of the help given. Need for approval
angry reaction when minority group members try to change the power balance. Fear freedom movements
Trauma that results from observing another person’s traumatic experience Vicarious Trauma
One's cultural identity influences his or her communication Cultural identity
what percent of communication comes from the meaning in words 6%
what percent of communication is found in vocal intonation 39%
what percent of communication is found in accompanying gestures 55%
The physical location where the interaction is taking place. The personal history each participant brings to the event Contextual environment
This communication noise involves flickering of a light, incessant sneezing External communication noise
This communication noise involves Biological factor. EX: illness, exhaustion, hunger Physiological communication noise
This communication noise exists to some extent in the head. Ex: internal stress, personal judgments, random thoughts that pop into ones mind Psychological communication noise
List the Degrees of directness Equivocal language, Euphemistic language, Abstract Language, Passive voice
This degree of directness is the deliberate use of words, signs or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way in order to mislead someone. Ex: “do you like my hair? ‘it’s really different!’” Equivocal language
This degree of directness is the use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt, descriptive ones. Ex: “I need to go to the powder room” Euphemistic language
This degree of directness Refers to degrees of imprecision in communication. Speak of things less specifically. Ex: “I have to clean the house today.” Abstract language
This degree of directness refers to a statement in which the person or thing performing the action is not overtly stated. Ex: “The car was wrecked.” Passive voice
list the degrees of deafness mild, moderate, severe, profound
list the powerless forms of speech Hedges, Hesitations, Intensifiers, Polite Forms, Tag Questions, Disclaimers
This Powerless form of speech are qualifiers that weaken the statement being made Hedges
This powerless form of speech uses fillers preceding and during an utterance Hesitations
This powerless form of speech uses unnecessary modifiers added to an utterance which obscure the message Intensifiers
This powerless form of speech are words and phrases used for more than simple politeness Polite form
This powerless form of speech are questions tacked onto the end of a statement Tag questions
This powerless form of speech uses qualifying phrases which weaken the validity of the statement being made Disclaimers
Ways people tend to organize their "scripts" Schema Constructs
This feature used to organize schema classifies individuals based on their appearance, gender, physique, age, etc. Physical Characteristics
This feature used to organize schema bases the expectations we have of others based on their social position Social roles
This feature used to organize schema is the way people behave in social situations (aloof, friendly, judgmental, etc) influences our sense of who they are and what we might expect of them. Social interactions
This feature used to organize schema involves grouping individuals based on their personal psychological assessments of them Psychological characteristics
This feature used to organize schema involves group affiliation Memberships/associations
3 ways culture can be viewed Ethnocentrism, Xenocentrism, Cultural Relativism
The attitude that one's culture is superior to others, and that one's beliefs, values, and behaviors are more correct Ethnocentrism
The belief that anything foreign is best and one's own lifestyle, products, or ideas are inferior to others Xenocentrism
Behaviors, lifestyles, and ideas of a certain culture are judged within their own context rather than by the standards of another culture. this is the approach taken by anthropologists Cultural Relativism
Refers to the words, phrases, clauses, and sentences used in a given language, along with the pronunciation of the words. It is the surface structure, the way the words are arranged. Form
the form will change between languages, but the meaning cannot change meaning
Levels of interpretation (4) Literal, Modified Literal, Idiomatic, Unduly Free
A word-for-word interpretation Literal Level of Interpretation
The grammar of the source message is modified to use acceptable sentence structure in the target language, but the lexical items are interpreted more literally. Modified Literal of Interpretation
Natural forms found in the target language and is not dependent on the form of the source language. Grammatical presentation and choice of lexical items are meaning based, not form-based Idiomatic Level of Interpretation
This occurs when extraneous information not found in teh source message is added to the interpretation which changes the meaning to either have a stronger or weaker impact than that given Unduly Free Level of Interpretation
Fingerspelling in ASL? Proper Names, Names of cities and state abbv, Acronyms of organizations, specific terms, English words that have no ASL lexical equivalent, Technical English terms
A tool that will help an interpreter understand fingerspelled words (4) Context
A tool that will help an interpreter understand fingerspelled words (4) Configuration
A tool that will help an interpreter understand fingerspelled words (4) Closure
A tool that will help an interpreter understand fingerspelled words (4) Focus on the message and one may be able to predict the fingerspelled word
Using a sign to represent a word Flagging
appropriate procedure for including info regarding sign names Just say the name unless the person explains how they got the name sign
Refers to movements that occur with verbs to indicate how an action is performed or distributed. "I gave my sister a book" Distributional Aspect
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Contrasting
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Faceting
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Reiteration
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Utilizing 3-D Space
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Couching
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Explain by Example
Sign to English ASL Expansion technique (7) Describe then Do
(6)This ASL expansion technique compares two things by juxtaposing two opposite ideas in order to emphasize one of them Contrasting
(6)This ASL expansion technique describes several different signs that are signed sequentially to more clearly express one idea Faceting
This ASL Expansion technique describes signs that are repeated in a text the same way they were initially stated (6) Reiteration
This ASL expansion technique describes background info that is added to a concept to make it clear (6) Couching
This ASL expansion technique gives list of examples as an explanation (6) Explain by Example
This ASL expansion technique describes the signer transitions from the narrative style of discourse to taking on the role of a person speaking (6) Describe then Do
The desired effect of a communication; it is the purpose underlying the words. The speaker's intention. Illocutionary forces (7)
Statement Illocutionary force (7)
Question Illocutionary force (7)
Command Illocutionary force (7)
Threat Illocutionary force (7)
Warning Illocutionary force(7)
Promise Illocutionary force (7)
How to "keep the floor" for a deaf person during turn taking Use a filler
Words the speaker uses to signal what he or she plans to do during a turn of talk Marker
Non-verbal indicators used by recipients to let a speaker know they want the speaker to continue a turn of talk Continuer
Keep hands up Deaf Marker (3)
hold the last sign Deaf marker (3)
fill pause with movement Deaf marker (3)
"ok", "uhm", "and" Hearing Marker
OH-I-SEE, RIGHT, UNDERSTAND Deaf Continuer
Raising the Palm signal that a deaf person wants to claim a turn of talk (their are 3)
Switch eye gaze signal that a deaf person wants to claim a turn of talk (their are 3)
increase head nodding signal that a deaf person wants to claim a turn of talk (their are 3)
return to direct eye gaze signal that a deaf person wants to "end" a turn of talk (their are 3)
decrease signing speed signal that a deaf person wants to "end" a turn of talk (their are 3)
Rest hands signal that a deaf person wants to "end" a turn of talk (their are 3)
I understand meaning of the sign OK (their are 4)
To show conformation meaning of the sign OK (their are 4)
I accept meaning of the sign OK (their are 4)
Yes meaning of the sign OK (their are 4)
Fall in Love with English Way to improve your English Skills (their are 4)
Increase Vocabulary Way to improve your English Skills (their are 4)
Monitor the use of one's own English Way to improve your English Skills (their are 4)
Keep a grammar notebook Way to improve your English Skills (their are 4)
A person is not aware of the areas of skill needing improvement Unconscious incompetence
A person is aware of areas needing improvement Conscious Incompetence
A new skill has been learned but not mastered Conscious competence
A skill has been performed and worked on long enough to have become an ingrained habit, unconscious skill Unconscious competence
General to Specific Rule of Logic (their are 4)
Concrete before abstract Rule of Logic (their are 4)
Spatial relationships Rule of Logic (their are 4)
Chronological order Rule of Logic (their are 4)
Rule of Logic ex: I got scared when the dog barked at me Chronological order
Rule of Logic ex: The ball is in the box Spatial relationship
Rule of Logic ex: The rose is beautiful Concrete before abstract
Rule of Logic ex: The boy sat on a dock at the edge of the lake General to Specific
yesterday, tomorrow, last year... Specific Tense Indicator in ASL
before, ago, now will, after General Tense Indicator in ASL
Specific time indicator is located at the______ of a sentence Beginning
General time indicator is located at the________ of a sentence End
Verbs you cannot make directional. Ex: love, want, understand, feel Non-directional verbs
SASS Size and Shape Specifiers
These verbs not only serve to identify the object of the verb but they also move the object that is being acted upon from one place to another. ex: drive, walk, go fly One-directional Travel verbs
This verb acts like all other one-directional verbs in that it moves to and identifies the object of the verb. However, it is unlike the travel verb in that it does not transport objects across your signing space. ex: See, choose, advise, tell One-directional non-travel verbs
These verbs act on a third object within the sentence. These verbs act similarly to travel verbs, meaning they act upon an object and transport it to another location. ex: send, give, deliver, pay One-directional objective verbs
What type of question is "What, when, where, why, which, how much, how many" WH question
This type of WH question cannot stand alone and must be attached to a verb phrase How
This type of question is used for emphasizing. RH question
This type of question breaks the rule of chronological order RH question
Deaf people who only express themselves in ASL. No skill in English ASL Monolingual
Deaf ppl who are more comfortable expressing themselves in ASL than in English ASL-dominant bilingual
Deaf people who are comfortable expressing themselves in ASL and English and are able to understand both equally well. Balanced Bilingual
Deaf people who are comfortable expressing themselves only in English. Either oral or signed English. they have no ASL skill English Monolingual
Deaf people who are more comfortable expressing themselves in English than ASL English-dominant bilingual
Deaf people who have some skills in both English and ASL, but have not mastered either language Simi-Lingual
a form of code switching. The preference to use an English-based sign language is based on the needs of the client and/or context of the setting. Common to many bilingual communities Diglossia
This type of communication facilitation is used to produce a verbatim interpretation Transliteration
A transliterator mostly depends on this sign system CASE
A good command of ASL; A good command of the English Language; Appropriate understanding and usage of grammar and vocabulary in both languages Fundamental knowledge required to transliterate
The 4 levels of interpreting/transliterating process occurs Lexical, Phrase, Sentence, Textual
Primary goal of an interpreter/transliterator To produce a message that is understood by the consumer
A goal of an interp/transliterator (4) to deliver the message based on English grammatical order
A goal of an interp/transliterator (4) to remember that meaning and understanding come before form
A goal of an interp/transliterator (4) To use signs based on ASL usage, not on English gloss
A goal of an interp/transliterator (4) To maintain meaning and intent of the original English
An addition that serves as a link to different parts of a discourse. This means adding spatial referencing and use of space Cohesion
An addition that serves to make the source message clear and free of ambiguity Clarification
The two ways that Clarification can be used 1. By stating he implied meaning of the text; 2. by linking a particular English lexical item with a particular sign
an addition that visually communicates an auditory aspect of the language Modality Adaption
an addition that provides emphasis by repeating a key word or phrase. Repetition
an addition that involves the reforming of a sign for the purpose of pluralization Reduplication
Mouthing for Interpreting uses ASL Morphemes
Mouthing for Transliterating uses mouthing of the English words
pluralization of nouns are handled in three ways 1. a double movement or repetition; 2. Place a number indicator before the noun; 3.Follow the noun with the sign people
How is active voice constructed sub, verb, obj
How is passive voice constructed obj first
This expansion technique is done by stating what is, then what isn't Contrasting
This expansion technique is done by using several signs to more clearly express an idea Faceting
This expansion technique is done by using the same sign at the beginning and end Reiterating
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Pointing
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Placed Signs
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Fingerspelling
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Directional verbs
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Classifiers
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Role assumption
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Body shifting
A way that Role Shifting/Incorporation of 3-D info can be accomplished (8) Eye Gaze
This expansion technique is done by constructing a list or examples Noun-listing/Examples
This expansion technique adds info to a concept. This device is used to provide info in an introductory expansion to ensure the listener has the schema or frame required to understand the upcoming discourse Couching/Nesting
This expansion technique is made up of two parts: first the signer states what she will do from a narrator position; second, via a role-shift, the signer does what was described from the position of the person doing the action Describe then Do
Differences between Interpreting and Transliterating 1. Process Time; 2. deletion of words and phrases; 3. Mouth movements
Similarities between Interpreting and Transliterating 1. Clarity in the production of signing and fingerspelling; 2. Use of non-manual behaviors; 3. Use of Space; 4. Sign vocabulary choice and utilization; 5. Message conveyance
When was the Code of Professional Conduct made effective July 1, 2005
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 1 Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 2 Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 3 Interpreters conduct themselves in manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 4 Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 5 Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns and students of the professions
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 6 Interprets maintain ethical business practices
Code of Professional Conduct Tenet 7 Interpreters engage in professional development
Created by: melrenae