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Ling 2010510

Mid Term

linguistics linguists studies what we know when we know a language.
descriptive grammar describes linguistic knowledge (linguists)
prescriptive grammar tells people what rules they should follow (English teachers)
phonetics the study of speech sounds
phonology the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages
morphology the study of the structure of word forms
syntax the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language
semantics the study of meaning
pragmatics the study of how context affects meaning
discourse analysis The study of the ways in which language is used in texts and contexts
branches of linguistics psycholinguistics topology sociolinguistics discourse analysis evolutionary linguistics
knowledge of sound system 1. knowing what sounds are in English, what sounds are not 2. knowing the inventory of sounds 3. knowing what sounds may start a word, end a word, follow each other
knowledge of words knowing certain sequences of sounds signify certain concepts or meanings
knowledge of sentences and non-sentences * a language is not a set of words * not every string of words is a sentence in a language * knowing rules for forming a sentence and determining whether a stings of words is a sentence or not a sentence * well-formed * ill-formed
Linguistic context, co-text how meaning is understood without relying on intent and assumptions
Situational context, physical context would to the extent possible refer to every non-linguistic factor that affects the meaning of a phrase
discourse analysis the analysis of the linguistic units larger than a sentence in terms of style, appropriateness, ...
anaphora an instance of an expression referring to another
cleft sentence a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Ex. It's money that I love.
pronouns * meaning is from other NPs or larger discourse * sensitive to syntax and context for their interpretation
free or bound pronouns
deixis the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information
deictic expressions words and expressions whose reference relies entirely on the situational context of the utterance and can only understood in the light of these circumstances *1st and 2nd person-pronouns-always deictic *3rd person pronouns are deictic if they are free
person deixis place deixis time deixis
implicatures The aspect of meaning that a speaker conveys, implies, or suggests without directly expressing.
conversational maxims a speaker is assumed to make a contribution that Maxim of Quality -truthful Maxim of Quantity -adequate Maxim of Relation relevant Maxim of Manner -clear
illocutionary force underlying purpose, speaker's intention *depends on situational context Asserting Promising Excommunicating Exclaiming in pain Inquiring Ordering
face-threatening act (FTA) an act which challenges the face wants of an interlocutor
face-saving act an act that avoids a loss of face
principle of constitutionality the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions and the rules used to combine them.
semantic rules
reference the reference of an NP is part of its meaning.
Meaning as reference is a connection between language and objects and events in the world
homonym a word the same as another in sound and spelling but different in meaning *bow (weapon, bend) *no/know, bear/bare
polysemy a word's capacity to carry two or more distinct meanings *grave as in serious, tomb
hyponym a subcategory of a more general class: "Chair' and "table' are hyponyms of "furniture
metonym A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power
antonym 1. complementary antonyms: alive/dead, 2. gradable antonyms: big/small 3. relational opposites: buy/sell
autoantonyms words that are their own antonyms *dust
agent doer of the action
theme undergoer of the action
goal end point of a change
source where the action originates
instrument the means used to accomplish the action
experiencer one receiving sensory of emotional input
Syntactic rules I Any speaker of any human language can produce and understand an infinite number of sentences
Syntactic rules II Sentences are composed of discrete units that are combined by rules
Syntactic categories a phrasal category, such as noun phrase or verb phrase or a lexical category, such as noun or verb
recursive rule rule that repeats its own category
linguistic competence the system of linguistic knowledge possessed by native speakers of a language
linguistic performance the way the language system is used in communication
Created by: pornpi



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