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Microb Pathogenisis

What is a pathogen? an organism able to cause disease
virulence degree of pathogenicity, invasiveness and toxigenicity, and degree and nature of host cell involvement
What is a virulence factor? • Pathogenic traits in bacteria are due to the action of genes coding for specific structures and substances
virulence mechanisms of microorganisms resistance, production, evasion, induction and adherence
What is adherence to host cells? – extracellular bacteria use receptor-mediated attachment to cell surface - using specific adhesin molecules; may be on structures: pili or fimbriae – viruses and intracellular bacteria use specific receptors as prelude to entering the cell
What is invastion of host cells? • penetrate or be taken up by host cell • provides access to nutrients (bacteria) and host cell machinery (viruses) • may help in avoidance of immune response
production of substances released.... degradative enzymes and toxins
What are exotoxins? secreted into the environment, protein based; highly antigenic, several modes of action, produced by gram positives and gram negatives, very specific
What are endotoxins? • LPS in outer membrane of gram negatives….can damage cell directly, pore formation and cytoskeletal modulator. Disrupt cell communication and interfere with internal cell processes
Siderophores • iron-binding compounds excreted by pathogens under iron stress • host actively sequesters iron during infection to limit growth of pathogens
Host immune response to pathogen • superantigen • cross-reacting antibodies • immune complexes • inflammation • endotoxic shock
Created by: bspeight