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Bacterial Growth

What are obligate anaerobes? cant tolerate oxygen
What are obligate aerobes? aerobic organism that requires oxygen to grow
What are facultative anaerobes? that can go either way (with molecular oxygen or no oxygen) is an organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation. (no oxygen)
What are aerotolerant anaerobes? use oxygen but can tolerate it. is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It could possibly react negatively and may even die if oxygen is present.
What are microaerophiles? have oxygen but not very much
What is the way in which bacteria grows? exponential growth
How are bacteria counted? • viable count-often based on diluted sample • microscopic cell count • count based on cell mass
What is the lag phase? metabolic ‘gearing up’ by bacteria; turning on/off genes.
What is the log phase? the rate of division and the duration of the log phase are restricted by conditions and resources. Make as short as possible
What is the stationary phase? nutrients are dwindling, toxic waste products are building up
What is the death phase? Size of the viable population begins to fall, but cure flattens out eventually
What is a phototroph? uses light
What is a chemotroph? uses oxidation reduction reactions
What is a heterotroph? uses organic compounds
What is a autotroph? uses CO2 inorganic carbon
What is anabolism? • Range of abilities to synthesize among the pathogens – simple to fastidious growth requirements, e.g., requiring growth factors – building blocks to macromolecules- needs range from only basic building blocks to pre-formed macromolecules
Describe catabolism? • Multiple sources may serve as C, N and energy sources • Compounds may be degraded and assimilated by multiple pathways with multiple control mechanisms in play
Describe fermentation • Catabolic reaction in which the primary electron donor and ultimate electron acceptor are organic and ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation
Describe respiration • Catabolic reaction in which the electron donor may be organic or inorganic and the final electron recipient is inorganic, often oxygen (aerobic respiration) but may be CO2, sulfate or nitrate (can occur anaerobically; less efficient than aerobically, un
Enzymes that remove hydrogen peroxide and superoxide? Superoxide dismutase Catalase Peroxidase
What are capnophiles? They require high amounts of CO2 and low amounts of oxygen
Bacterial endospores • Spores are able to survive heat, drying, UV irradiation, disinfectants • Spore formation involves shutdown of vegetative genes, and the engagement of sporulation genes
toxic oxygen derivatives hydrogen peroxide and superoxide
What is bacterial metabolism? Bacteria obtain energy and carbon in various ways
Created by: bspeight