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Micro (Bacterial Gen

QuestionAnswer
What are the steps of transduction? Penetration of bacterial cell envelope by viral genome. Virus is carrying DNA from another bacteria Viral gene replication, typically with host gene shutdown • Packaging of newly produced virions (which may include host bacterium DNA)
What are the steps of conjugation? • Pilus brings cell to cell • Single strand of DNA is passed to recipient F-; remaining strand replicates in donor • Single strand replicates in recipient
What are the steps of transformation? the uptake of 'naked' DNA; i.e., another organism is not necessarily present• double-stranded DNA binds to cell surface receptor • one strand is degraded; the other enters competent cells
What are the 3 ways of aquiring exogenous DNA? • Transformation • Transduction • Conjugation
What are antimicrobial resistance genes? • Enzymatic breakdown of antimicrobial agent • Alteration of target molecule on the pathogen, disrupting the agent’s ability to bind • Reduced uptake or enhanced removal of the agent from the pathogen
What is passed during conjugation? F plasmid or F factor
What is a bacteriophage? • Viruses which use bacterial cells as hosts
What are integrons? • Serve to accumulate multiple antibiotic resistance genes under the control of a single promoter
What are transponsons? • Small segment of DNA (flanked by insertion sequences) that can move from one region of a DNA molecule to another; non-homologous replication
What are pathogenicity islands? of virulence associated genes • originally horizontally transferred across species lines
What are plasmids? • Most plasmids are circular and <1% the size of the host chromosome • Plasmids can be transferred by conjugation, transduction and transformation
Describe mutation • DNA > transcribed into mRNA > translated into protein • Alterations in DNA base sequence result in alterations in amino acid sequence and thus proteins which are non functional or have altered function
What are recombinants? • Cells which integrate such received DNA into their DNA
How does exogenous DNA get into the cell? – recipient DNA is cleaved by DNAse – matching donor fragment is linked to recipient strand via DNA ligase. Ligase is an enzyme that puts fragments together. – DNAse then degrades replaced recipient sequences
What is competence? • competence is a unique physiological state found only in a low percentage of individuals within a few genera of bacteria
What are the 2 things in which a virus can be expressed in a cell? lysogenic and lytic cycle
What is the lysogenic cycle? Host growth with viral genes replicated but not expressed is referred to as the lysogenic cycle - Lytic phase may be induced later via the inactivation of repressor proteins.
What is the lytic cycle? Host cell lysis followed by release of large numbers of virions;
What is lysogenic conversion? - Bacterial replication includes replication of incorporated viral genes. If prophage genes become active following the process it is referred to as lysogenic conversion
What is Hfr? high frequency recombinant
Created by: bspeight