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Biology Chapter 9

Final Review

calorie the amt. of nrg needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 celsius degree
Glycolysis the pathway cellular respiration begins with
Cellular Respiration the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Formula for cellular respiration 6O2 + C6H12O6 ----> 6CO2 + energy
Why can't cellular respiration take place in one step? All the nrg from glucose would be released at once, and lost in the form of light and heat.
Glycolysis takes place in the... cytoplasm
Krebs cylce and e. transport take place in the... mitochondria
Glycolysis Process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 pyruvic acids.
How does glycolysis give a net gain of ATP? It takes 2 ATP molecules to get it going, but yields 4 ATP. There is a net gain of 2.
NAD+ an electron carrier that accepts a pair pof high-energy electrons and holds them until they can be transferred to other pathways in the cell. When it does this, it turns into NADH.
Does glycolysis require oxygen? nope
What's the problem when glycolysis generates large amounts of ATP? All the cell's NAD+ is filled, and ATP production stops.
Fermentation The pathway that follows glycolysis if there's no oxygen. It converts NADH back into NAD+, which allows glycolysis to continue.
Anaerobic not requiring oxygen, like fermentation.
2 types of fermentation alcoholic, lactic acid.
Krebs Cycle pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
Electron Transport chain a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the krebs cycle and glycolysis are used to convert ADP into ATP. It's in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion (eu.) or in the cell membrane (pro)
The final electron acceptor in e. transport oxygen
The energy from the electrons is used for... moving H+ ions across the membrane. This makes the intermembrane space positively charged and the matrix negatively charged.
What happens with ATP Synthase? H+ ions move through it. It uses the energy from them to combine ADP and a phosphate group, making ATP.
How many ATP molecules are formed during cellular respiration? 36
62% of glucose's nrg is... released as heat
Waste products water and CO2
Three sources of ATP a human body uses at the beginning of a race. Stored ATP, cellular respiration, lactic acid fermentation.
What source can supply enough ATP for about 90 seconds? lactic acid fermentation
Why does an oxygen debt build up after l.a. fermentation? To get rid of the lactic acid, the body must use oxygen as a byproduct.
For a longer race, how does the body generate the necessary ATP? Cellular respiration
Photosynthesis vs. Respiration photosynthesis "deposits" energy. Cellular respiration "withdrawls" it. They are opposite in terms of CO2 because photo. takes it from the atmosphere and c.r. puts it back. Vice versa for oxygen. Their formulas are also almost opposite.
Created by: numchuckskillz



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