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Blood a system of circulating cells and fluids that carries out many important functions for the body
Functions of blood transport of nutrients and oxygen to the body tissues, elimination of waste products and carbon dioxide from tissues, would repair and protection from infection by foreign agents.
Plasma the cell-free fluid portion of blood
Serum obtained from isolated blood by letting it stand and clot
Virus small subcellular agents
Bacteria small, single-cell microrgs, which have relatively simple genetic material
Examples of bacteria induced things Tuberculosis and typhoid fever
Protozoa single-cell microrgs that contain ore complicated genetic structures.
Examples of protozoa amoebas and Giardia
Fungi more complex microrgs that may exist as single cells or maybe organized into simple multicellular orgs
Example of fungi yeasts and molds
Multicellular parasites relatively large orgs such as roundworms and tapeworms
Three kinds of blood vessels arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arteries function carry blood away from the heart to the body tissues
Veins' function carrys blood back to the heart from the tissues
Capillaries thin-walled vessels in the tissues that connect the arteries with the veins, allow exchange of oxygen, nutrients and wastes betw the blood and tissues
Cells life span 1-2 days or sev weeks, therefore must be continually replenished
stem cells in bone marrow; replenish cells
What do stem cells first develop into? commited precursors which either divide or differentiate into mature blood cells of a particular kind
Growth factors needed for stem cells or committed pre to divide or differentiate
Ex of growth factor interleukin 2 IL2 required by T lymphs
Red blood cells, erythrocytes many, only single cell type;
Function of red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide away from them;
Hemoglobin binds and carries oxygen and carbon dioxide within them. Gives blood red color.
white blood cells, leukocytes fewer in number; several types
Megakaryoctyes large white blood cells tha bud off subcellular fragments called platelets.
Platelets circulate thru bloodstream and cause a clot if there is a break in blood vessel (wound repair)
Lymphocytes respond to a specific foreign agent of substance or antigens
Cells that are not specific for the foreign agent they attack phagocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, and natural killer cells
Phagocytes cells that attack and eliminate foreign cells or bacteria by engulfing or eating them
2 kinds of phagocytes macrophages and neutrophils
Macrophages generally attack and engulf cells infected with viruses
Neutrophil generally attack foreign bacteria
Function of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils Attack infectious agents that are too large to be engulfted by a single blood cell e.g protozoa and worms
Antibodies bind to the foreign agent in a specific fashion which tells phagocytes, mast or eosino to attack.
Antigen a molecule or sub against which lymphocytes raise a response
B-lymphocytes secrete soluble proteins called antibodies into the ciculatory system
Neutralizing antibodies bind directly and inhibit the funtion of infectious agents such as viruses
T lymphocytes make proteins (receptors) that recognize specific antigens. T do not release receptors, therefore T cell binds, not just receptor.
T Killer, cytotoxic directly bind to cells carrying a foreign antigen
T helper interact with B lymph or T killer and help them respond to antigens; CD4
Natural killer cells attacks and kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells
Created by: smartchick