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Bio Test 4/29

QuestionAnswer
A segment of DNA that codes for RNA and protein is a Gene
The structure in a cell that is made up of the cell's genetic material is a Chromosome
What contains a substance consisting of DNA and a protein?` Chromatin
The repeated sequence of growth and division during the life of a cell is called The Cell Cycle
The first three phases of the life cycle of a cell are called Interphase
What is the process during which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei? Mitosis
The phase of cell division when the cytoplasm is divided is called Cytokinesis
During cell division, each single long strand of DNA becomes fully condensed in the form of a Chromatid
A type of protein found in eukaryotic chromosomes but not prokaryotic chromosomes is Histone
During cell division, sister chromatids are separated at the Centromere
What is a network of microtubules that forms during mitosis to pull chromatids to opposite ends of a cell? Spindle
In eukaryotes, a structural unit made up of DNA wound around of center of histone proteins is called Nucleosome
The structure that directs chromosome movement during mitosis and aids in the formation of the microtubule scaffolding that pulls on the chromosomes is the Centrosome
The structure in which a cell's DNA is packaged Chromosome
A thick strand made up of condensed DNA Chromatid
A substance made up of DNA and protein Chromatin
The region where sister chromatids are bound together Centromere
A segment of DNA that codes for RNA and protein Gene
A type of protein found in the chromsomes of eukaryotic cells Histone
A structural unit made of DNA wound around a core of histone proteins Nucleosome
Advancing the growth of an organism, replacing old cells or cells that aren't working well, and to heal a tear or wound are why multicellular organisms do what? Produce new cells
In prokaryotic cells, DNA appears in the form of a Loop
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wrapped around Proteins
What do all cells do to prepare for cell divison? Make and extra copy of their complete DNA
What pinches a diving prokaryotic cell into two cell? The cell wall
The process by which cytoplasm is divided between daughter cells Cytokinesis
A repeating sequence of cellular growth and division Cell Cycle
An organelle that helps assemble the spindle and aids chromatid movement in a dividing cell Centrosome
Major portion of a cell's life Interphase
The process by which the nucleus of a cell becomes two nuclei Mitosis
Microtubule network that pulls chromatids in a dividing cell Spindle
What does not occur during interphase? The cytoplasm isn't divided
What occurs after the second gap phase of interphase? Mitosis
What is the first stage of mitosis? Prophase
During which stage of mitosis do nuclear envelopes form? Telophase
Which phase of the cell cycle: The nucleus divides Mitosis
Which phase of the cell cycle: It makes up a major portion of most cell's lives First Gap Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: The cytoplasm divides Cytokinesis
Which phase of the cell cycle: The mitochondria replicate Second Gap Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: The cell grows rapidly First Gap Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: Two identical nuclei are produced Mitosis
Which phase of the cell cycle: DNA is copied Synthesis Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: Microtubules are are assembled Second Gap Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: Sister chromatids form and become attached at the centromere Synthesis Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: The cell carries out its routine functions First Gap Phase
Which phase of the cell cycle: Mictrotubules move sister chromatids ?
What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis? Mitosis divides the nucleus and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm
G2 phase is to mitochondria as S phase is to ?
Crossing over occurs during Prophase I
Cytoplasm divides unequally in meiosis during production of Egg cells
What does not provide new genetic combinations? Cytokinesis
DNA replication occurs Prior to prophase I
Spermatogenesis results in Four Haploid Sperm Cells
Halves the number of chromosomes Meiosis
Chromosomes become visible Prophase I
Results in exchange of chromatid portions between homologous chromosomes Crossing over
Results in four haploid cells Telophase II
Results in on egg and three polar bodies Oogenesis
What stage of Meiosis I: Cytoplasm divides T
What stage of Meiosis I: Nuclear envelope breaks down P
What stage of Meiosis I: Homologous chromosomes separate A
What stage of Meiosis I: Spindle moves homologous chromosomes to the cell's equator M
What stage of Meiosis I: Crossing over occurs P
What stage of Meiosis I: Two new cells form T
What stage of Meiosis I: Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell A
What stage of Meiosis I: Chromosomes condense P
What stage of Meiosis II: Centromeres divide A
What stage of Meiosis II: New spindle forms P
What stage of Meiosis II: Cell undergoes cytokinesis T
What stage of Meiosis II: Chromsomes line up at equator M
What stage of Meiosis II: Spindle breaks down T
What stage of Meiosis II: Chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell A
What stage of Meiosis II: Four haploid cells form T
Between meiosis I and the end of meiosis II, chromosomes do not ?
The first level of packaging is done by a class of proteins called Histones
A group of eight histones come together to form a disc shaped Histone Core
What is long and wound around a series of histone cores in a regular manner? DNA molecule
The long DNA molecule is made up of a histone core and the DNA around it is called a Nucleosome
The string of nucleosomes line up in a spiral to form a cord that is what? 30 nm in diameter
During most of a cell's life, it's chromosomes exist as Coiled or Uncoiled Nucleosomes
Chromosomes condense even further as a cell prepares to Divide
Chromosomes condensing ensures that the extremely long DNA molecules do not ( ) during cell divison get tangled up
The 30 nm fiber (the nucleosome cord) forms loops that are attached to a Protein Scaffold
What are body cells? Somatic cells
What are the stages of Interphase? G1, S, G2
What are sex cells? Germ cells
How many chromosomes does a human have? 46
Each daughter cell being different form each other and the parents creates Variety in offspring
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Nuclear membrane does not reapper 2nd split to occur Meiosis I
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Each cell contains the same amount of DNA as the parent cell Meiosis I
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Begins with 2 cells from Meiosis I, those cells split, ends with 4 cells Meiosis II
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Sister chromatids separate Meiosis II
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Nuclear membrane reappears Meiosis II
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Each cell is different from each other Meiosis II
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? Chromosome pairs separate Meiosis I
MEIOSIS 1 OR MEIOSIS 2? begins with parent cell and ends with 2 cells Meiosis I
Cell with normal chromosome number Diploid
Cell with 1/2 normal chromosome number Haploid
What is a human diploid number? 46
What is a human haploid number? 23
If a diploid number is 8, what is the haploid number? 4
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? Diploid parent splits into 2 diploid daughter cells Mitosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? Generates Gametes Meiosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? Assexual reproduction Mitosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? Variety amongst offspring Meiosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? No variety amongst offspring Mitosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? Somatic cell reproduction Mitosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS? Diploid parent cell splits into 4 haploid daughter cells Meiosis
MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS Sexual Reproduction Meiosis
Created by: emilydupak