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Intro to Botany

final exam chapter 1-27

The Study of plants is called Botany Strands of living tissue found beneath the epidermis in stems and petioles that are adapted to provide support of young growing organs is called sclerenchyma
An organism that does not have a membrane bound organelles or a nuclear membrane is called prokaryotic Cells which are dead at maturity and have thickened, often lignified cell walls are called collenchyma
These green organelles are packed with small disk-like structures called grana Conducting tissue which has no cell membranes and in effect is dead is called xylem
The small disk-like structure are attached to a massive membrane called thylakoid Conducting tissue which lives and conducts sugars is pholem
The small organelles where the processes of respiration occur are called mitochondia Small units within cells that function like small organs organelles
Storage spaces in cells which hold starch, oils or other chemicals in high concentration are called vacuoles The name given to plants that grow during one season and then flower during the next growing season, after which they die biennial
Continuous masses of cells in the cortex of stems and roots, in the pith of stems, in leaf mesophyll and in the flesh of fruits is called parenchyma Plants have joints where the leaves emerge and these joints are called nodes
The leafless pieces of stem between these are called internodes A sheet of growing tissue is called a cambium
The epidermis has small openings which allow gas exchange which are called stomata The epidermis has small hair or bristle-like structures called trichomes
Thick roots which extends directly down into the soil and may exceed 50 ft. in length are called tap roots The absorptive roots of a plant which spread out in the upper 2 ft. of soil are called fibrous roots
Small extensions of cells which occur near the root tip and help increase surface area of the roots are called root hairs Thick roots which originate from above ground plants parts are called prop roots
A strip of impermeable material found in the cell wall of cells in the roots endodermis is called the casparian strip A leaf which has more than one part is called a compound leaf
These arrangement of the leaves can be grouped into two categories. When arranged like fingers on a hand, the arrangement is called palmate leaf When leaves have a central stalk and small leaflets arise laterally they are called pinnate leaf
The veins on leaves can be situated in one of two manners. Most monocot leaves have veins which are alongside of each other in a parallel Most dicot leaves have crisscross veins which are in a net like (netted)
A swollen stem structure that occurs at the base of a stem and contains many compressed leaf-liked structures is called a bulb A swollen stem structure that occurs underground and is used for food storage is tuber
Small openings in the bark of trees and the epidermis of apples and pears which allow for gas exchange are called lenticels The annual accumulation of secondary growth is evident as ____ which appear due to unfavorable climatic conditions. growth rings
A flower which has both male and female parts is called perfect A grouping of flowers on a single plant is called an inflorescence
The mature ovary of a flowering plant is called a fruit A mature ovary of a plant in which the seeds are scattered inside of a fleshy body is called a berry
A mature ovary of a plant in which the seed is enclosed in a hardened shell with a fleshy outer layer is a drupe Many flowers have become showy and colored in an attempt to entice animals to collect and transmit pollen
The main carbohydrate of energy storage in plants is starch The main unit of cell wall construction is the carbohydrate cellulose
Carbohydrates are composed of which of the following elements oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon Carbohydrates are made up of units of ___ that are bonded together into long chains that are called___ because they are made of many repeating units monomers, polymers
Triglycerides are made up of one unit of ____ and three units of ___ glycerol, fatty acid A fatty acid that has the presence of double bonds between carbons is called unsaturated
Fats which are solid at room temperature are made of ____ fatty acids saturated Proteins are made of long sequences of amino acids
Organic molecules that consist of a phosphate group, a 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogen base and have the function of information storage and retrieval are nucleic acid Molecules that are not water loving are called hydrophobic
Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called osmosis The process by which the energy stored in a sugar is released is called respiration
If the release of energy stored in a sugar occurs in the absence of oxygen, the resulting products are either ethanol or lactate, and the process is called fermentation All of these reactions are catalyzed by proteins called enzymes
The main transporter of energy within the plant is a small molecule made of a nucleotide and phosphorus called ATP The green pigment which captures light energy is called chlorophyll
One of the photosynthetic systems which is specialized for desert plants which cannot keep their stomata open during the heat of the day is called CAM The first form of carbon fixation that was discovered occurred when CO2 combines with ribulose bis phosphate to form PGA is called C3
The second form of carbon fixation that was discovered occurs when CO2 combines to form malate which is then transported to another part of the leaf is called C4 The part of the leaf in which the malate in the previous question is transported to is called the bundle sheath
The word that refers to chemicals made of carbon backbones organics The enzyme that begins the process of photosynthesis and is the most abundant enzyme on the face of the earth Rubisco
An organic compound synthesized by the plant and which is trans-located to another part of the plant, where, in uM concentration it elicits a response is called a hormone The first of these to be discovered causes meristems to bend and is called auxin
Another of these, the discovered in fungi, cause plant elongation is called gibberellin Maturation of fruits and plant organs is promoted by ethylene
Response of a plant to light is called phototropism Response of a plant to gravity is called gravitropism
The response of a plant, or any biological organism, to intervals such as 24 hr, 28 day or 14 days is called a circadian rhythm The response of a plant to touch is called thigmonasty
An element that is required in amounts less than 100mg/kg dry weight is a micronutrient A plant that grows up to a defined height, flowers and dies has___ growth. determinant
A plant which grows, flowers and continues to grow has ____ growth. indeterminate Organisms that are capable of manufacturing their own food using light as an outside energy source and elements and inorganic compounds are called photoautotroph
Orangisms that are capable of maufacturing their own food using inorganic chemicals as an outside energy source and elements and inorganic compounds are called chemoautotroph Organisms that require an organic carbon source for energy are called chemoheterotroph
Organisms which have the ability to grow in an atmosphere that does not contain oxygen are called anaerobic The breakdown of sugar into 3-carbon sugars is called glycolysis
An amino acid which the human body must obtain from diet is called essential Soil particles that are large (0.02 to 2 mm) are called sand
The process of dieing in plants or plant tissue is called senescence Growing of plants in a soil-less garden is called hydroponics
Rain or irrigation water removes nutrients and other dissolved chemicals from the soil in a process called leaching The response of plants to varying day lengths is called photoperiodism
The ability to do work is called energy The system which generates ATP and is found in the mitochondrion is called electron transport chain
Growing plants from a single cell in a defined chemical medium is called tissue culture Classification of plants into binomial names was popularized by Linneaus
Which of the following characteristics are part of the definition of a species production of fertile offspring, ability to reproduce sexually, genetic self-compatibility, individuality On which group or groups of organisms are all other groups dependent plants
What makes the group or groups of organism in the preceding question (plants) so important thay are autotrophic Anaerobic bacteria normally grow in an atmosphere that does not have oxygen
Thermoacidophilic bacteria are able to grow at temperature that are elevated Cyanobacteria are interesting among bacteria because they have the ability to Photosynthesize
Which nucleic acids can be found in viruses either DNA or RNA The external coat of a virus is made of protein
Free living single celled marine organisms which belong to the Protista are called plankton The group of plankton which have the ability to capture sunlight and are photoautotrophic are called phytoplankton
Single celled algae which possess a silicia based shell are called diatoms The largest members of the algae include the giant seaweeds which grow of the coast of California and are colored brown
A polymer which is harvested from algae and is often used as a thickener in things such as ice cream and culture media is called agar The body of a fungus is made up of small thread-like filaments called ___ which in combination is called a ____ hypae, mycelium
The large fruiting body of fungi of the Basidiomycotina is a mushroom These fruiting bodies are often edible and have a very high level of available protein
Zygospores, acospores and basidiospores are all formed as a result of sexual recombination Associations of fungi with plant roots which result in increased absorption of nutrients for the plants are called mycorrhizae
Associations of fungi with algae which result in free living organisms are called lichens Plant anchors, which only hold the plant to the substrate and DO NOT absorb nutrients or water are called either ___ when the plants are algae or __ when the plants are bryophytes holdfast, rhizoid
The name given to plants of the genus Sphagnum which grow in large bogs and are harvested, ground and used to supply organic matter to soil is peat moss The major difference between Bryophytes and other lower "plants" such as fungi is that Bryophytes produce an ___ rather than a zygote. embryo
The genetic state of a fungus where 2 haploid nuclei are found per cell is called dikaryotic Ferns are of interest because they reproduce by producing ____ on the lower surface of their leaves. spores
The fern leaf as it forms and expands has the shape of a ____ which is often edible. fiddlehead Gymnosperms are of interest because they reproduce by means of a naked embryo
The most commons Gymnosperms are trees which are used by man as either ornamentals or for wood and paper pulp and are called conifers Cycads are extremely ____ plants dating back to the Carboniferous period. ancient
The Angiosperms are divided into two subgroups based on the presence of one or two cotyledons
In plants, organelles that are colored green is called chloroplasts The storage part of a seed which emerges as a pair in dicotyledonous plants, but remains below the soil surface in monocotyedonous plants are called cotyledons
The organelles in the previous question(chloroplasts) have the function of photosynthesis The process in which a seed absorbs water and begins growth is called germination
Created by: Diana317