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68WM6-Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
the building blocks out of which proteins are constructed, the end products of protein digestion amino acids
the building and repairing phase of metabolism anabolism
a psychoneurotic disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat; self-imposed starvation anorexia nervosa
the amount of energy used by the body at rest basic metabolic rate
an estimate used to determine if a person may be at risk because of excessive weight, used ot define obesity BMI
an eating disorder involving an insatiable craving for food, often resulting in binge eating follew py depression, self-deprivation, and purging bulimia nervosa
the breakdown or destructive phase of metabolism catabolism
fat-soluble sterol found in animal fats and oils, organ meats, and egg yolk cholesterol
generic term for non-digestible chemical substances found in plants dietary fiber
caused by the contents of the stomach emptying too quickly into the duodenum; persipiration, nausea, vertigo, diarrhea, and weakness are the symptoms; usually associated with gastric bypass or partial gastrectomy dumping syndrome
administration of nutrients into the GI tract Enteral nutrition
nutrients that the body cannot make that must be obtained from the diet essential nutrients
carbohydrates stored in the liver and skeletal muscles glycogen
a process in which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it solid hydrogenation
a measurment of energy or the amount of energy a specific food can provide to the body kilocalorie
group name of organic substances of a fatty nature, which are insoluble in water. lipids
molecules made of lipid surrounded by protein; high density and low density are two types of this lipoproteins
use of specific nutrition services to treat an illness, injury, or condition medical nutrition therapy
the amount of nitrogen consumed compared to the amount of nitrogen excreted over a given amount of time nitrogen balance
foods providing a high quality of one or more nutrients in a small number of calories nutrient-dense foods
abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells of the body; grossly overweight obeseity
administrating nutrients by a rount other than the digestive tract (intravenously, for example) parenteral nutrition
a progressive macrocytic megaloblastic anemia usually related to inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of vitamin B12 pernicious anemia
food, fiber, bacteria, body secretions, and other substances that remain in the colon after digestion is completed residue
a feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food satiety
a diet used as medical treatment therapeutic diet
the administration of a hypertonic solution into a large central vein TPN
the administration of nutritionally balanced liquefied foods or formula into the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum by way of a feeding tube tube feeding
strict vegetarian who eliminates all foods of animal origin from their diet vegan
what are the three macronutrients? carbohydrates, protein, fat
what are the two micronutrients? vitamins, minerals
what are the two functions of nutrients? build and repair tissues, regulate body processes
the primary source of energy for the body carbohydrates
this macronutrient makes up most of the body's lean tissues and organs protein
these amino acids are not made in the body essential amino acids
these amino acids are made by the body nonessential amino acids
this macronutrient insulates the body, provides a source of fat-soluble vitamins, and protects vital organs fats
these fats are solid at room temperature, usually found in animal products saturated fats
these fats are liquid at room temperature, and are usually found in plant/vegetable products unsaturated fats
organic compounds needed by the body in small amounts for normal physiologic and metabolic function of the body vitamins
the two most important water soluble vitamins B, C
deficiency of this can lead to anemia, neural tube defects, and elevated homocysteine levels folate (B9)
this B vitamin is essential for nervous system function B12
this vitamin has antioxident properties, increases iron absorbtion, and aids in wound healing and immune function C
deficiency of this vitamin can lead to scurvy, gingivitis, and bleeding gums C
the four fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
this vitamin maintains healthy vision A
this vitamin promotes the body's absorbtion of calcium D
This vitamin protects cell membranes and tissues, and is needed for normal development of nerves and muscles E
this vitamin is a coenzyme for blood coagulation; a deficiency can lead to excessive bleeding and easy bruising K
inorganic compounds found in the earth which perform vital roles in various body functions minerals
the diet of this vegetarian includes vegetables and dairy lacto vegetarian
the diet of this vegetarian includes vegetables, dairy, and eggs lacto-ovo vegetarian
this mineral helps with fluid and acid-base balance, and is important for nerve conduction and muscle contraction sodium
this mineral is important for nerve transmission and muscle contractions, and may help reduce blood pressure potassium
this mineral is essential for muscle contraction, nerves, teeth and bone health calcium
this mineral is responsible for energy metabolism and oxygen transport iron
water is what percentage of an adult's body weight 60%
the amount of fiber that an adult should consume per day 20-35g
this fiber dissolves in water, slows the rate of digestion, and decreases cholesterol levels soluble fiber
this fiber aids in digestion and acts as a natural laxative insoluble fiber
recommended weight gain for a person of normal weight during pregnancy 25-25 lbs
recommended weight gain for an overweight person curing pregnancy 15-35 lbs
recommended weight gain for an obese person during pregnancy 15 lbs
recommended weight gain for underweight persons during pregnancy 28-40 lbs
how many additional calories should a pregnant woman consume during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters? 300
what nutrients should be increased during pregnancy protein, folic acid, calcium, and iron
a condition of high blood sugar levels in a pregnant female with no previous diagnosis of diabetes gestational diabetes
substances to avoid during pregnancy nicotine, drugs, alcohol, herbal supplements
can be a result of alcohol use during pregnancy fetal alcohol syndrome
how many additional calories should be consumed by a breastfeeding mother? 500
how long should an infant remain on breastmilk or formula? 6 months
when can solid food be introduced into an infant's diet? 4-6 months
foods that should be avoided during infancy honey, cows milk, citrus friuts, fruit juice, egg whites, peanuts/peanut butter, nuts
what is it called when a child consitently rejects other foods in favor of a favorite food? food jags
this diet includes clear liquids only and is used after diagnostic tests, surgery, and acute illnes (NVD) clear liquid diet
transitional diet from clear liquid to solid foods full liquid diet
this diet provides food and fluids for patients who are unable to chew, swallow, or tolerate solid foods, usually following oral or facial surgery blenderized diet
provides texture modified foods that require minimal chewing mechanically altered diet
this is used for patients wtih an impaired ability to swallow or with an intolerance for thin liquids dysphagia diet
four members of the nutrition support team physician, dietitian, pharmacist, nurse
Created by: ewoff85