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CV disordersHBBV

Cardiovascular disorders

cardiovascular system artiers, veins capillaries
Arteries carry oxygenated blood from heart to body, muscular and elastic in nature-accomodate pressure increases during heart contraction, mainaint unidirection blood flow duint heart relaxation
veins composed of small layer of muscle, blood flow back to hear it supported by skeletal muscle contraction, valves present to prevent backflow of blood
Capillaries connect artiers to veins through networks fo tiny vessels-capillary beds, exchangfe of nutrients, gases horomones
Blood flow left and right sides of heart work together, both bentricles contract(systole), releax(diastole), heart pumps 5-6L of blood per min, contraction ciculates blood to every cell in body
Diasotle relaxation-blood flows into and through atria to ventricles, as atrial pressure increases, blood flow forced down into ventricles
systole contraction-during ventricular contraction-tricuspid valve closess-blood travels to pulmonary artery, mitral valve closes-blood travels to aortic atery
Stroke Volume amount of blood pumped during ventricular contraction
Cardiac output stroke volume* heart rate
Heart internal structures coronary artiers, intrinsic electical conduction system
coronary arteries branch from base of aorta to supply entire myocaridum
intrinsic electrical conduction system SA node depolarizes-spread electicity though pathway in atria, depolarization reaches the AV node-travels to ventricular walls-contraction by wya of AV bundle, bundle branches, pukinji fibers
Responses and adapations to exercise exercising muscls require more o2, both components of cardiac output are increased, vascular resistence decreases,-vasodilation in skeletal muscle, systolic pressure can increase to 250mmHg, diastolic pressure remains constant
exercising muscles require more o2 heart rate and respiration rate both increase significantly
both components of cardia output are increased stroke volume and heart rate
vascular resistance decreases-basodilation in skeletal uscles bp does not decrease b.c of increased vardiac output
systolic pressure can increase to 250mmhg high systolic pressure is necessary to maintain blood flow to vessels being occluded by intense muscle contraction
Long term responses and adaptations to exercise increase CO(increase in SV), cardiac hypertrophy, decreased in resting heart rate, little change in BP
Once exercise ceases what happens? hr should decrease by atleast 12 bpm after the first min(mor fit, quicker it falls), BP should drop 8-12 mmHg/MET level
AHA minimal components capable of identifying up to 50% of atrisk ath, follow up testing should be done for any suspected abnormalities-ECG echocardiogram, blood tests, CMR exercise testing
Echocardiogram ultrasound of the heart
Blood tests sickle cell trait/diseas, mycardial infarction
CMR Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
ECG electrocardiogram-assesses the hearts electricle system, relitively inexpensive test, assocate w. false positives
Pwave atrial depolarization
QRS segment ventricular depolarization
Twave ventricular repolarization
diagnostic testing? some controversy as to whether ppe should include ECGs, echocardiograms, or blood testing, ATs should discuss the use of these CV screening tests w/ their team physicians, decision to include tests in standare PPE is both a philosophical and finacial one
Created by: jwebst1