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Ch 11 Endocrine

Physiology Ch 11 Endocrine System Vocab

Endocrine System Cells, tissues, and organs collectively called endocrine glands
Hormones A substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood
Target Cell A cell with specific receptors on which a hormone exerts its effect
Paracrine Secretions Local hormones that only affect neighboring cells
Autocrine Secretions Local hormones that affect the secreting cell itself
Steroid Hormones Hormones that are made up of complex rings of carbon and hydrogen; are insoluble in water and enter a target cell.
Nonsteroid Hormones Hormones that are made up of amines, peptides, and proteins, and usually bind to receptors in the target cell membrane
First Messenger The hormone that triggers the receptor's activity site to interact with other membrane proteins
Second Messengers The biochemicals in the cell that induce changes in response to the hormone's binding
Prostaglandins A group of bio chemicals that have powerful, hormone like effects.
Negative Feedback A mechanism activated by an imbalance that corrects the imbalance.
Pituitary Gland Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain consisting of anterior and posterior lobes.
Growth Hormone Stimulates cells to increase in size and divide more frequently
Prolactin Stimulates and sustains a mother's milk production following the birth of an infant
Thyroid-stimulating hormone Controls the thyroid gland secretions
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Controls the manufacture and secretion of certain hormones from the outer layer of the adrenal gland
Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone Exert their actions on the gonads
Antidiuretic Hormone Decreases urine formation
Oxytocin Contracts smooth muscles in the uterine wall and stimulates uterine contractions during the later stages of childbirth
Thyroid gland Endocrine gland located just below the larynx and in front of the trachea
Thyroxine Help regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Triiodothyronine Five times more potent that thyroxine but has the same actions
Calcitonin Decreases blood calcium and phosphate ion concentration
Parathyroid Glands One of the four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior portion of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid Hormone Increases the level of blood calcium and phosphate concentration
Adrenal Glands Gland located on the superior portion of each kidney
Adrenal Medulla The inner portion of the adrenal gland
Adrenal Cortex The outer portion of the adrenal gland
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine Increase heart rate, force of cardiac muscle contraction, breathing rate, and blood glucose level, elevate blood pressure, and decrease digestive activity
Aldosterone Regulates the concentration of mineral electrolytes
Cortisol Affects glucose metabolism and influences protein and fat metabolism
Pancreas Glandular organ found in the abdominal cavity that secretes hormones and digestive enzymes
Glucagon Releases stored glucose; raises blood glucose concentration
Insulin Stimulates the cell to take up glucose; lowering blood glucose concentration
Pineal Gland A small structure in the central part of the brain that controls the biorhythms
Melatonin A hormone that controls night and day rhythms
Circadian Rhythms Patterns of repeated activity associated with the environmental cycles of day and night.
Thymus Gland A glandular organ in the mediastinum behind the sternum and between the lungs
Thymosins A group of peptides that increases the production of certain types of white blood cells.
Stress A condition caused by nerve impulses that send signals that the body's internal environment has changed in a way that can threaten life
Stressor A factor that can stimulate a response to perceived danger
General Adaptation Syndrome The physiological responses to stress
Created by: jmglbrt



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