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EvolutionTESTReview

Ch. 15 Evolution TEST Review

QuestionAnswer
Darwin referred to the process of promoting certain traits by breeding members with those traits as... Artificial selection
A morphological adaptation in which one species resembles another is called... Mimicry
Population decline causes an extreme genetic drift called a(n)... Bottleneck
Recently evolved traits that do not appear in ancestral fossils are called... Derived traits
What are two main components of natural selection? Variation and inheritance
What has occurred when fertilization produces a hybrid offspring that cannot develop or reproduce? Postzygotic isolation
What occurs when average traits benefit a population rather than extreme traits? Stabilizing selection
Charles Darwin served as naturalist on the ... HMS Beagle
While in the ... Darwin noticed slight differences in the animals from one island to the next Galapagos Islands
Show that the species present on Earth have changed over time Fossils
Thought to be the ancestor of birds Dinosaur
Are newly evolved features such as feathers Derived traits
Though to be the ancestor of armadillos Glyptodont
Modified structure seen among different groups of descendants Homologous structures
Eyes in a blind fish are examples of... Vestigial structures
DNA and RNA comparisons Comparative biochemistry
Bird wings and butterfly wings Analogous structures
Body structure that is no longer used for its original function Vestigial structures
Study of the distribution of plants and animals on earth Biogeography
Traits that enable individuals to survive or reproduce better than individuals without... Adaptations
Change in allelic frequencies in a population that is due to change Genetic drift
Removes individuals with average trait values, creating two populations with extreme ones Disruptive selection
Most common form of selection Stabilizing selection
When a small sample of the main population settles in a location separated from main population Founder effect
Species evolves into a new species without any barriers that separate the populations Sympatric speciation
Shift populations toward a beneficial but extreme trait value Directional selection
Population is divided by a barrier, each population evolves separately and eventually two populations cannot successfully interbreed Allopatric speciation
Change in size or frequency of a trait based on competition for mates Sexual selection
One species will sometimes diversity in a relatively short time into a number of different species Adaptive radiation
Idea that evolution occurred in small steps over millions of years Gradualism
Leafy sea dragon looks more like a plant than an animal, this is an example of... Camouflage
Change of species over time Evolution
Industrial melanism is a special case of... A structural adaptation
Process of directed breeding Artificial selection
Organisms most adapted to their environment survive, those which are not best adapted will die Natural selection
Early, pre-birth stage of an organisms development Embryo
Occurs when two or more species evolve adaptations to resemble one another Mimicry
Studying the structure of organisms during early stages of development Comparative embryology
States that when allelic frequencies remain constant, a population is in genetic equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Primitive features, such as teeth and tails, which appear in ancestral forms Ancestral traits
Process that splits a population into two groups Disruptive selection
Created by: SavannahElkins