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A&P practical 2

ch. 3 and 4

Two major parts of a cell are the nucleus and? Membrane
What is the smallest cell? Red Blood Cell
The _ proteins in a membrane function as enzymes. Peripheral
The inside lining of the digestive tract is lined with cells that are held together by? Tight Junctions
The _ is the source of most of the cellular energy Mitochondrion
The _ contains enzymes that are used to degrade foreign particles as well as cell structures. Lysosomes
The _ is the organelle that plays a complex function in cell reproduction. Centriole
The protein actin is found in _, which results in some type of movement or contraction microfilaments
The process that results in daughter cells with half of the original chromosome number is meiosis
Chromosomes are aligned along the equatorial line during the _ stage of division. metaphase
The _ stage occurs when two daughter cells have completely formed. telophase
During hyperplasia, cells are dividing at a rapid rate and may progress towards a _ state. cancerous
Which feature is a characteristic of the cell membrane? is a phospholipid bilayer, which is selectively permeable, slightly self repairing, and has some proteins embedded in it.
The type of proteins that guide cells on the move in the bloodstream to their destination at a wound site are_ Cell adhesion molecules
_ provides both structural support and the enzymes needed to make proteins from amino acid building blocks. ribosomes
What organelle consists of microtubules and functions both in distributing chromosomes during cell division and in forming portions of cilla and flagella. centrosome
In what part of the nucleus does ribosome production occur? In the area of the nucleolus
By which process does a glucose molecule move through a cell membrane protein carrier from a region of greater concentration to one of lower concentration? facilitated diffusion
In the liver, the _ may play a role in producing the enzymes that help detoxify drugs. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
A ribosome is an example of a _ organelle
A cell membrane allows only needed substances to pass and is therefore called _ selective
A human cell membrane is comprised of the following except which one? nucleic acids
The following molecules freely pass through a cell membrane except which one? amino acids
Hormones come in contact with the _ molecules in a membrane. rod-like protein
The cells in heart muscle are often held togetherby area called_ gap junctions
The _ functions to package molecules into vesicles that can be transported out of a cell. golgi apparatus
A combination of a sugar with a protein is a _ glycoprotein
The _ functions as a sac-like or tubular network of structures that provides transport. endoplasmic reticulum
The cristae are the inner portions of the _ mitochondria
Catalase is an enzyme, which grades _ hydrogen peroxide
The structures that cause fluids and mucus to move across their surface are the _ cilia
What human cell does not have a flagellum? intestine
Membranous sacs that contain fluids or particles for transport are called the _ vesicles
The following belong together except which one? microtubule, microvilli, aid in DNA movement, comprise an internal skeleton microvilli
What is the term for chemical particles in a cell which appear lifeless and have no obvious function? inclusion
The following are inclusions except which one? glycogen, melanin, lipids, vesicles vesicles
The movement of particles from higher to lower concentration is termed _ diffusion
The following will increase the rate of diffusion except which factor? increased temperature, increased concentration, increased molecular weight, shorter distances increased molecular weight
Movement of particles from higher to lower concentrations through a membrane, such as in dialysis, occurs by_ diffusion
Membranes that have a higher osmotic pressure on one side tend to draw water towards that side
Hypertonic solutions tend to cause cells to shrink
Normal isotonic sodium chloride solution is _%. 0.9%
The movement of a salt through a membrane, such as in a kidney, because of pressure differences is called_ filtration
Hydrostatic refers to pressure of _ the solvent
Movement of molecules from low to high concentrations is _ active transport
The ability of leukocytes to engulf bacteria is due to the process of _ phagocytosis
In receptor-mediated endocytosis, and LDL particle of cholesterol is attracted to cells that contain_ apoprotein-B receptors
As a result of mitosis, the number of chromosomes _ is doubled
At which stages does the chromosome number double? interphase
Two chromatids are attached at the _ region. centromere
The centromeres divide during the _ stage of mitosis. anaphase
The process _ explains how embryonic cells become specialized and diverse. differentation
The main division process in the early embryo is _. mitosis
Cancer cells can disseminate to other areas by a process called _. metastasis
Which channel-blocker medication can be used to treat hypertension or angina pectoris? calcium
What type of cell is bacterium? prokaryotic
The _ of a cell is the most critical factor in determining its function. shape
The _ of the cell directs its overall activities as well as houses its genetic material. nucleus
Molecules that are solute in _ can pass through the fatty acid portion of the cell membrane unassisted. lipids
Cells use up to 40% of their daily energy expenditure engaged in what important process? active transport
During what phase of the cell does DNA replication occur? S phase
Chromosomes align midway between centrioles during what phase of mitosis? metaphase
DNA can be found within chromosomes during division but prior to division DNA exists as long thin _ strands. chromatin
Which chemicals on the surface of cells function to attach to and recognize hormones? proteins
The term _ can be used to imply all of the chemical reactions within a cell. metabolism
The cristae are structures found within the _ organelle. mitochondrion
Which of the following does not belong with others? diffusion, osmosis, active transport, passive transport active transport
One mechanism in the skin that prevents cells from becoming loose and separating is the presence of junctions called desmosomes. True
A TEM is a device that is used to magnify a cell only about 1,000 times. False
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a significant function in protein synthesis. False
Selectiviely permeable membranes allow proteins to pass through them. False
Lysosomes degrade bacteria and worn cells, and can cause disease by destroying normal tissues. True
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical toxic to most cells and is produced by some human cells. True
Peroxisomes can play a role in the detoxification of alcohol. True
The centrioles are microtubules that play a significant role in ATP and energy production. False
The nucleus is an organelle enclosed in a double layer of membrane. True
The nucleolus functions mainly in the synthesis of DNA. False
Chromatin is the term for the loosely coiled appearance of DNA in a non-dividing cell. True
In the process of apoptosis, cells shrink and die but the basic structure of the organelles remains constant. True
DNA has chemicals that direct metabolic processes as well as reproduction. True
At the point of equilibrium, during diffusion, there is no further movement of any molecules. False
In general, the rate of diffusion of a molecule is faster in areas of higher temperature. True
The sugar added to a water solution is termed the solvent. False
During renal dialysis, a type of diffusion, it is possible to remove all of a metabolic waste such as urea, from the blood. False
Osmosis is the movement of water and can occur through any type of permeable membrane. True
Osmosis is considered a special case of diffusion and is passive in nature. True
Cancer cells are more sensitive to drugs and radiation than normal cells. True
There are many possible causes of cancer including viruses, radiation or exposure to chemicals. True
It is possible for an intravenous solution that is labeled isotonic, to by hypotonic to a patient. True
In active transport, energy is consumed by the cell membrane in the form of ATP. True
Endocytosis is a passive transport process. False
Bone cells contain genes for nerve cells that have been repressed. True
Ribosomes are comprised of RNA that has been synthesized directly by the nucleolus. True
Vesicles differ from vacuoles in that vesicles are usually produced for the purpose of causing something to leave the cell. False
The Golgi apparatus plays a direct role in producing the complete cell membrane. False
Cells have the capability of synthesizing water during metabolism. True
Membranes are called selectively permeable because they allow most substances to enter the cell. False