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Stock Related Terms

Investor Someone who risks funds by purchasing financial products with the hope the investments will increase in value over time.
Private Company A company that is owned by a person, family, or small group of investors that does not sell shares of stock in the company to the public Usually referred to as a proprietorship Most common type of business ownership
Public Company A company that is owned by investors who buy shares of stock, partial ownership of the assets of a business, in the corporation usually through one of the stock exchanges Usually referred to as a corporation
Common Stock Do not guarantee a dividend and have more risk and volatility than preferred shares Common stock holders have the benefit of providing shareholders with the right to vote for the board of directors
Preferred Stock Shares of ownership of a company in which the share holder is guaranteed a dividend if one is declared and whose shares are usually not as volatile as common stock. Preferred stock holders do not have voting rights in company elections and decisions.
Bear Market A period when a market declines
Bull Market A period when a market increases
Capital Gain or Loss The difference between the price at which you buy an investment and the price at which you sell it
Diversification The method of balancing risk by investing in a variety of securities
Earnings A company’s after-tax profits. Commonly expressed as earnings per share, or total earnings divided by shares out- standing
Portfolio A company’s after-tax profits. Commonly expressed as earnings per share, or total earnings divided by shares out- standing
Prospectus The document that describes a securities offering or the operations of a mutual fund, a limited partnership or other investment
Buy On Margin To buy on margin involves a stock investor borrowing money to buy additional shares, and using the purchased shares as collateral for the loan
Sell Short Borrowing a security from a broker and selling it, with the understanding that it must later be bought back (hopefully at a lower price) and returned to the broker
Risk The chance of losing all or part of an investment
Volatility Indicates how much and how quickly the value of an investment, market, or market sector changes
Dividend Part of a company’s profits (earnings) that it pays as money to stockholders
Capital Wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
Stock A type of security that signifies ownership in a corporation and represents a claim to a part of the company's profits or losses
Corporation A business that is owned by stockholders and has rights and responsibilities as if it were a person
IPO Initial Public Offering--the initial sale of stock to the public by investment bankers
Transaction Cost Fee paid to stockbroker for each trade he makes
Total Annual Return Annual gains and losses divided by the cost of investment--expressed as a percentage
Buy Limit Order The highest price at which an investor will purchase a specific stock
Sell Limit Order The lowest price at which an investor will sell a specific stock
Created by: Nrobinson