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Nutrition Ch. 4

To much fat as well as __ _______ fat causes health risks? to little
Fat is a member of what class? lipids
What are triglycerides? fats and oils
What are the lipids in foods and in the body include? triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
What do lipids provide the body with? energy
The body's compacity to store fat it? unlimited
In what kind of tissue are the lipids stored in? adipose tissue
What do fat cells secrete? Secrete hormones that help to regulate the appetite and influence other body functions
The fat stored in fat cells supplies how much of the ongoing energy needs when the body is at rest? 60%
Fat cells give more energy when? when there are greater energy needs, or when there is food deprivation
The body cannot convert fat into what? glucose, for the brain and nerves
When there is not enough glucose for the brain the brain can derive half of its energy from its own form of fat called? ketones, but they will still need glucose
What other roles does fat serve in the body? Skin=natural oils Scalp=norish the hair Layer of fat under skin=insulates Fat beneth kidney=protects from being damaged Breasts=protects mammory glands
What do phospholipids and the sterol cholesterol help maintain? the structure and health of all cells
What are people referring to when they say "i'm too fat"? triglycerides
What does triglycerides mean? three fatty acids attached to a glycerol "backbone"
When energy from any energy yielding nutrient is to be stored as fat, the nutrient is first? broken into small fragments
Then the fragments are linked together in chains called? fatty acids
Fatty acids are then? packed 3 at a time with glycerol
In what 2 ways to chains differ? length and in degree of saturation
If every avaliable carbon is filled to capacidty with hydrogen atims, the cahin is called? a saturated fatty acid
A saturated fatty acid is fully loaded with? hydrogen atoms and has only single bonds between carbon
In what foods are hydrogen atoms missing from fatty acid chains? Plants and fish
The places where the hydrogen atoms are missing are points called? unsaturated
When there are points of unsaturation they are called? unsaturated fatty acids
An unsaturated fatty acid has at least? one double bond between carbons
What are the three types of fatty acids? saturated, monosaturated, and polysaturated
What are monounsaturated fatty acids? a fatty acid that has one point of unsaturation
What kind of fatty acid has 2 or more points of unsaturation? polyunsaturated fatty acid
Fats that contain short chains of unsaturated fatty acids are? softer at room temp and melt faster
Saturation also influences what? stability
What kinds of fatty acids spoil faster because their double bonds are unstable? polyunsaturated
The oxidation of unsaturated fats produces a variety of compounds that? smell and taste rancid
Fats can become _______ when exposed to oxygen? rancid
What kind of fats are not effected much by oxidation? saturated
Manufacturers can protect spoilege in what three ways? sealed and refirgerated, may add antioxidants, they may saturate some or all of the points of unsaturation by adding hydrogen atoms
What is hydrogenation? where you saturate some or all of the points of unsaturation by adding hydrogen atoms
What are antioxidants? as a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of foods and other damage to food by oxygen
What are BHS, AND BHT perservatives commonly used to slow the development of "off" flavors, odors, and color changes caused by oxidation
What is hydrogenation? a chemical procss by which hydrogen atoms are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more saturated and more resistant to oxidation
What are the two advantages of hydrogenation? protects against oxidation, and also alters the texture of foods by increasing the solidity of fats
When partially hydogenated vegie oil is changed to? butter
The disadvantage is that hydrogenation makes polyunsatured fats? more saturated
What is another disadvantage of hydrogenation for the fats that remain unsaturated? they change from cis to trans
What is a trans fatty acid? where the hydrogen atoms next to the double bonds are on opposite sides of the carbon chains
In the body trans fatty acids act like? staturated fats
Trans fatty acids can lead to? hearth disease
What two fatty acids can the body not make for themselves? linoleic acid and linolenic acid
Both linoleic acid and linolenic acid are? polyunsaturaed
linoleic acid and linolenic acid cannot be produced by the body therefore they are? essential fatty acids
Where are the essential fatty acids found? plant oils
How does linoleic acid and linolenic acids help the body? it helps regulate bp, clots, blood lipid concentration, immune system, inflammatory response and many others, serve as structural component of cell membranes
What is linoleic acids? omega 6 fatty acid
Where is it found (linoleic acid)? seeds of plants and oils from seeds
What is linolenic acid? omega 3 fatty acids (also includes EPA and DHA)
Where is linolenic acid found? fish oil
Both EPA and DHA are needed for? normal brain development
DHA is also active in? the retina of the eye
Omega 3 fatty acids are essentail for? prevention of heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and cancer
What are phospholipids and sterols? other classes of lipids
phospholipids and sterols make up how much lipids in the body? 5%
What are lecithins? type of phospholipids
lecithins have a backbone of? glycerol
On lecithins the third fatty acid place there is a? phosphate group (choline)
What does the phosphate group on lecithins allow? enables them to dissolve in water (to mix fat with water)
In what are phospholipids found? eggs, liver, soybeans, wheat germ, and peanuts
What are the roles of phospholipids? constituents of cell membranes
Phospholipids also act as what in the body? emulsifiers
Why are lecithins not essential nutrients? they are made from scratch by the liver
What are sterols? large, complex molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon.
What is the most familiar sterol? cholesterol (vit. D and sex hormones)
What is richest in cholesterol? organ meats, liver, kidney, and eggs
Plant sterols interfere with? cholesterol absorption
A diet rich in plant sterols lowers? blood cholesterol
They is cholesterol not an essential nutrient? it is made by the body, liver
Cholesterol can be made in the liver with what? glucose or fatty acids
Where does most of the body's cholesterol end up? cell membranes
In what two ways does cholesterol leave the liver? made into bile, stored in gallbladder and delievered to intestines, 2. travel by blood stream to all body cells
Why is the cholesterol bile released into the intestine? to aid in digestine
What are lipoproteins? lipids attached to proteins
Cholestorol is harmful to the body when? it deposits in the artery walls
What do deposts of cholesterol in artery walls contribute to? atherosclerosis
A person who eats a diet high in saturated fats or trans fats is at risk for? cardivascular disease
CVD is the ? number one killer of adults
What are the two types of lipoproteins? LDL and HDL
high LDL cholestoral increases? the liklehood of heart disease and earlier
High HDL cholestoral lowers? disease risk
What raised LIL? high saturated fat and high trans fat
Fats from where are the main source of saturated fats? animal
to minimize intake of saturated fats people should eat less? meat
What foods contain a lot of trans fats? butter, fast food, chips, and baked goods
What is the daily intake of Trans fatty acids? 6 grams per day
What are major sources of saturated fats? whole milk, fatty cuts of beef or pork, tropical oils, and shortening
What are major sources of cholesterol? egg,meat,cheese,milk
What are major sources of monounsaturated fats? olive oil, avocados
What are major sources of polyunsaturated fats? vegie oil, nut and seeds
Olive oil has what that helps protect against heart disease? phytochemicals
What does omega 6 fatty acid do? lowers total blood cholesterol and LDL
What does omega 3 fatty acids do? influence the function of the heart and blood vessels
EPA and DHA protect the heart by? lowering blood triglycerides, prevent blood clots, protect against irregualar heart beat, lower BP, and defend inflammation
how much should one consume fish? 2 times a week
Why should we not eat fried fish? saturated and trans fat
Supplements of 2 grams a day of EPA or more than 3 grams of fish oil? interfere with blood clotting
What are the 2 potentially toxic vitamins? A and D
How much of linoleic acid and linolenic acid should be in the daily energy intake? linoleic acid provides 5 to 10% linolenic acid 0.6 to 1.2%
You should eat diets low in? saturated, trans fat, and cholesterol
When monounsaturated fat such as olive oil replaces saturated and trans fats in a diet it? lowers the risk of heart disease
Fats change the __________ of foods? flavor and aroma
What four vitamins are soluble in fat? A D E K
What is most important for people? to control portion sizes, particularly portions of fatty foods
What are examples of added fats? dessert topping, butter, oil, dressing
Milk and yogurt are rich in? Ca+ and protein
What foods are solid fats? whipped cream, sour cream, and cream cheese
Cheeses are major contributors of? saturated fat
Meat conceal a good deal of what? fat (saturated)
What are the 4 categories of fat? very lean, lean, medium fat, and high fat meats
What is the daily allowance for meat? 5 to 7 oz
When looking for meat or pork you should look for? loin or round
What foods help lower saturated fat, cholestrol, and total fat? vegies, fruit, whole grains, and legumes
The softer a fat is? the more unsaturated it is
Animal fats are? more saturated
You should have at least how much fat each meal? a tsp
People who want to remain constant should? read labels, limit fat, and seek out polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats
Coconut oil and palm oil? raise blood cholesterol
What are fat replacers? ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat in foods and may or may not provide energy
What are artificial fats? zero energy fat replacers that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities of natually occurring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion
What is olestra? a synthetic fat made from sucrose and fatty acids that provides zero kcalories per gram (sucrose polyester)
What is olestra made of? a sucrose molecule with 6-8 fatty acids attached
Enzymes in the digestive tract cannot break what? the bonds of olestra, so it passes the GI system unabsorbed
2 questions the FDA asks about olestra? is olestra toxic? and does olestra affect either nutrient absorption or the health of the GI tract?
What do some people experience with olestra? cramps, gas, bloating, and diarrhea
Vegies and fruits contain how much fat? very little
What is protein? a nutrient that can be used as fuel, provides machinery for getting things done
Chain length= Number of carbons
Saturation= number of hydrogens
1 hydrogen missing= monounsaturated
2 or more hydrogen missing= polyunsaturated
What is the bad cholesterol? LDL
What is good Cholesterol? HDL
To lower cholesterol? lower intake of meat products
Created by: alicia.rennaker