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Ap Biology Ch. 13

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

QuestionAnswer
heredity the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
variation differences between members of the same species
genetics the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in domr viruses)
gamete A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
locus A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located
asexual reproduction A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical off spring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts
clone A liniage of genetically identical individuals or cells
sexual reproduction A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to off spring that have unigue combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents
life cycle The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism
somatic cell Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
homologous chromosomes Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess alleles of the same genes at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother
sex chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
autosome A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome
diploid cell A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent
haploid cell a cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n)
fertilization The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
zygote The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg
meiosis A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that result in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
meiosis I The first division of a two-stage process of cell divsion in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
meiosis II The second division of a two-stage process of cell divsion in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
alternation of generations A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
sporophyte In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid from that results from a union of gametes that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation
spore In the life cycle, of a plant or alga undergoing alteration of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multicellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell
gametophyte In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte genration
synapsis The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prohase I of meiosis
crossing over The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prohase I of meiosis
tetrad A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis
chiasma The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis
recombinant chromosome A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from teo parents into a single chromosome
Created by: gnomealot