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Biol 130 - Chapter 1

The nature of Disease

What is Nature? The essential qualities or characteristics by which something is reconized.
What is Disease? An impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning.
All disease occurs as a result of? injury; disease is therefore, an unhealthy state caused by injury.
All disease is either? Acute disease or Chronic disease.
Acute disease arises.... rapidly, is accompanied by distinictive symptoms,and lasts a short time.
An example of an acute disease is? acute otitis media.
Chronic disease usually begins.... slowly, with signs and symptoms that are difficult to interpret for a long time, and generally coannot be prevented by a vaccines or cured by medication.
An example of a chronic diseaase is? arthritis....wear and tear begins with vague stiffness or aches in certain joints, progresses slowly. Can not be cured but can be treated and lasts a lifetime.
Pathology is the study of.... changes in the bodily structure and function that occur as a result of disease.
Etiology is.. (cause) of the injury (disease)
Pathogenesis is.... natural history and development.
Pathophysiology is... the manner in which the incorrect function is expressed.
Lesion is the.... structural abnormality produced by injury.
Idiopathic happens if the.... etiology is unknown.
Iatrogenic happens if the.... disease is a byproduct of medical diagnosis or treatment.
What is the Etiology of sunburn? excessive exposure to sunlight.
What is the Pathogenesis of sunburn? the absorption of high-energy ultraviolet (UV) rays, which injure skin.
What is the Pathophysiology of sunburn? Characterized by blood vessels dilation and increased blood, both which are part of the reaction to the injury.
What is the Lesion of sunburn? Red, swollen, hot, painful skin.
Anatomic Pathology is the study of.... structural changes caused by disease.
Gross examination is the assessment of... tissue, specimens, such as biopsy or sutopsy material, by the unaided eye.
Microscopic examination is the assessment of... magnified images of small structures.
What is Autopsy? The most extensive and basic gross examination. An after death (post mortem) dissection of a body to determine the cause of death and other facts about the condition of the patient at the time of death.
Clinical pathology is the study of... the functional aspects of disease by laboratory study of tissue, blood, urine, or other body fluids.
Give an example of Clinical Patholody. Blood glucose measurement to diagnose diabetes or culture of urine to detect bacterial infection.
Clinical pathology extends from the... lab to the bedside.
Sturcture and function are intimately... related in health and in disease. Alteration of one results in alteration of the other.
Structural disorder is a defect in... form.
A structural disorder leads to a... functional disorder.
A functional disorder is.... when something is not working properly.
An example of a functional disorder is.. a hole in the mitral heart valve that causes the heart work harder because it allows backflow of blood. Can lead to exhaustion. (congestive heart failure)
Give an example of a functional disorder that can lead to a structural disorder. High blood pressure is functional disorder that puts excessive strain on heart muscle, which enlarges like any other muscle subjected to hard work. The abnormal enlarged heart muscle is a structural disorder that has arision from a functional disorder.
All disease is associated with structural or functional abnormality with the exception of... many psychiatric disorders.
Diseases present themselves by causing ovservable and measurable changes in the... appearance (form) and performance (function) of cells, tissues, and organs.
What are symptoms? complaints reported by the patient or by someone else on behalf of the patient and are part of the medical history.
Give an example of a symptom. Diarrhea observed by the patient.
What are signs? Direct observations by an examiner.
Give an example of a sign. Diarrhea observed by the examiner.
A syndrome is a collection of... clinical signs, symptoms, and data.
A particular syndrome may be caused by... different diseases.
Sickness (disease) and Health (wellness) are words that refer to the actual... presense or absense of disease and do not refer to symptoms, signs, laboratory test reults, x-rays, or scientic studies.
Normal and Abnormal describe... the result of measurements or observations (physical examination, history, tests) used to determine whether disease is present.
Test result of positive means... if abnormal.
Test result of negative means... if normal.
Test result of true positive means... if the test is positive and the patient acutally has the disease.
Test result of False positive means... if the test is positive but the patient does not have the disease.
Test result of Ture negative means... if the test is negative and the patient actually has the disease.
Test result of False negative means... if the test is negative and the patient does not have the disease.
Normal means.... the usual result in health.
Normal range(reference range) is established for.... quantitiative tests that have numerical results. The low end is the lower limit of normal. At the upper end is the upper limit of normal.
For qualitative results there is no need for a range....the test is either.. positive (abnormal) or negative (normal)
What is a normal mean? When testing a large number of healthy people to study with no evidence of the disease. The results are averaged to determine the normal mean.
What is standard devation? When statistical formulas are applied to the data to determine the standard deviation, a measure of the degree of natural variability of results.
Created by: bnicholson29