Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

AP Biology Ch. 10

Photosynthesis

QuestionAnswer
photosynthesis The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes
photophosphorylation The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the cholorplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
photon A quantum, or discrete amount of light energy
photosystem Light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane, consisting of a reaction cneter surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes. There are 2 types of photosystems, I & II;they absorb light best at different wavelengths
primary electron acceptor A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two molecules
photosystem II (PS II) One of two light-capturing units in a chloropkast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
photosystem I (PS I) One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyl a at its reaction center
photorespiration metabolic pathway that concumes O2, realeases CO2, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; usually occurs on hot,dry,bright days when stomata close and the O2 concentration in the leaf exceeds that of CO2
PEP carboxylase An enzyme that adds carbon dioxide to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate
autotroph An organism that obtains organic foor molecules from eating other organisms or substances derived from other organism s. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones
bundle-sheath cell A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths aroung the veins of a leaf
Calvin cycle the 2nd of 2 major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reaction), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
CAM plant A plant that uses CAM, an adaption for photosynthesis in arid conditions,first discovered in the family Crassulaceae.CO2 entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids,which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day when stom
carbon fixation the incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compunf by an autotrphic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote)
carotenoid An accesory pigment,either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants.By absorbing wavelength of ligh that chlorophyll cannot,carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
chlorophyll A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chloropyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
chlorophyll a A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions
chlorophyll b A type of yellow-green photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll b
action spectrum A graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process
absorption spectrum The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light
C3 plant A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
C4 plant A plant that prefaces that Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound for the Calvin cycle which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle
cyclic electron flow `A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NAPDH or oxygen
electromagnetic spectrum The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nonometer to more than a kilometer
crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) A type of metabolism in which carbon dioxide is taken in at night and incorporated into a variety of organic acids
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) the carb produced directly from the Calvin cycle
heterotroph An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products
light reactions The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process
light-harvesting complex Complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules (including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) that captures light energy and transfers t to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem
mesophyll cell A loosley arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and leaf surface
mesophyll The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwhiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis
NADP+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions
noncyclic electron flow A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+
reaction center complex of proteins associated with 2 special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor.Located centrally in a photosystem,this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis.Excited by light energy,1 of the chlorophylls donates an e
rubisco Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose phosphate)
stomata microscopic pores surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
stroma The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
spectrophotometer An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution
thylakoid A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
visible light the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm ro about 750 nm
wavelength The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum
Created by: gnomealot