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AP Biology Ch.9

Cellular Respiration

fermentation A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
cellular respiration The most previlant and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
redox reaction A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
oxidation The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
reduction The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
reducing agent The electron donor in a redox reaction
oxidizing agent The electron acceptor in a redox reaction
NAD+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzymepresent in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions od metabolism
electron-transport chain A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
glycolysis The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration
citric acid cycle A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; pccurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration
oxidative phosphorylation The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
substrate-level phosphorylation The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism
acetyl CoA Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compund for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
cytochrome An iron-containing protein, component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and choloroplasts
ATP synthase A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondirial crista(and bacterial plasma membrane)that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent ETC, usinf using energy of a H+ ion concentration gradient to make ATP.ATP synthases provide a port through
chemiosmosis An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in the cell occurs by chemiosmosis
proton-motive force The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis
aerobic Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, envrionment, or cellular process that requires energy
anaerobic Lacking oxygen; reffering to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it
alchohol fermentation The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
lactic acid fermentation The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide
facultative anaerobe An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions
beta oxidation A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.
Created by: gnomealot