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Anatomy--Chapter 4

Apologia Anatomy & Physiology 7th grade

Pepsin A powerful enzyme in the stomach that is needed to break down the proteins eaten into smaller chemical components that the body can use
Chyme The liquid substance food becomes after being broken down in the stomach
Ureters Urine trickles down these tubes
Liver The part of body (organ) where nutrients are processed (stores glucose and bile)
Renal system The place in your body whre urine is produced
Duodenum The first foot-long part of the intestine
Gastroesophageal sphincter A circular muscle at the meeting point between the esophagus and the stomach
Appendix A tube on the cecum that provides a place for bacteria to live until needed
Gall bladder The part of the body that releases concentrated bile into the duodenum
Pyloric sphincter A muscle that works carefully to ensure that only a small amount of chyme goes into the small intestine at a time
Jejunum The eight-foot long part of the intestine, after the duodenum
Ileocecal sphincter The meeting point between the small and large intestines that opens and closes to let the liquid chyme from the small intestine enter the large intestine
Kidneys Special organs in your renal system that produce urine
Flatulence A side effect that occurs when bacteria in your intestines digest carbohydrates and release different gases
Bladder The ureters lead down to this pouch
Villi Tiny projections inside the small intestine that help transport nutrients to blood vessels throughout the intestine
Glycogen Glucose molecules mad by the liver from extra glucose in the body
Pancreas An organ used for digestion that produces hormones as well as digestive juices
Bile One of the chemicals made by the liver that is important for the digestive process
Ileum The last eleven feet of the small intestine
Enzymes Chemicals that, among other things, help your body break food down into smaller components
Molars Teeth in the back of your mouth that are useful for grinding food
Mechanical digestion The part of digestion which invoves the grinding and moving along of food through the digestive canal
Premolars The teeth located in front of your molars. They are useful for grinding food.
Cuspids Sometimes called yoru canines, these teeth are sharp and are made for tearing food
Crown The part of the tooth not hidden by the gums. It is covered with enamel.
Larynx The passage that leads to the lungs, located right in front of the entrance to the esophagus
Enamel The extremely hard, white, shiny substance that coats your teeth
Chemical digestion The process of digestion where the chemicals in foods are changed into smaller chemical components so your body can use them
Defecation The last step in digestion; the elimination of solid waste from the alimentary canal
Alimentary canal The part of the digestive system through which food passes, also called the gastrointestinal tract
Epiglottis A flap of cartilage in the back of your throat that drops down over the larynx and prevents food from going down the larynx
Digestion The body's process of breaking down food and converting it into the material the body needs to live, repair itself, and grow
Incisors The front four teeth, which are sharp and useful for biting
Pulp The area below the enamel and dentin, which contains the nerves and blood vessels
Dentin The living substance under the enamel on your tooth that supports it and absorbs shock that could otherwise damage the tooth
Saliva A liquid produced by the salivary glands (which are located in and near the mouth), containing enzymes that begin the breakdown of starches
What is the white outer layer of your tooth called? enamel
What is the layer right below the enamel called? dentin
What is the hardest substance in your body? enamel
Name a few things saliva does for you. begins chemical digestion, protects teeth, defends against infection, and makes food taste better
What is the name of the pipe that food goes down after you swallow it? Esophagus
How do your stomach and esophagus keep from getting burned by your own stomach acid? Mucus is produced in the stomach, and the gastroesophageal sphincter keeps it in the stomach
What is the food called when it enters the small intestine? chyme
What happens in the small intestine? Digestion is completed, and nutrients are sent to the bloodstream
Which organ is like a huge chemical factory? Liver
What do the kidneys do? They remove excess salts, water, and other substances from the blood and put them in the urine
Be able to label parts of tooth. See diagram on page 71 and diagram in notes
Know the names of the teeth. See diagram on pg 70 and diagram in notes
Be able to label the organs of the digestive system. See diagram on pg 69
Be able to label the renal system. kidneys, ureters and bladder
Created by: amcollins