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PH Biology Chpt 2

Prentice Hall Miller/Levine Chapter 2 Biology

Atom Basic unit of matter
Nucleus of an Atom Made up of subatomic particles - protons and neutrons
Electron Negatively charged particle in orbit around atom
Proton Heavy positively charged particle in Nucleus
Neutron Heavy neutrally charged particle in Nucleus
Element Pure substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
Atomic Number of an element equal to the number of protons
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Properties of an Element Determined by the number of electrons
Radioactive Isotopes Elements that have unstable nuclei that breakdown at a constant rate over time
Compound substance formed by the CHEMICAL combination of 2 or more elements, e.g. Water, H2O, or Salt, NaCl
Types of Bonds Ionic and Covalent
Ionic Bond Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Covalent Bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms
Molecule smallest unit of a compound
Van der Waals Forces the slight attraction between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
Polarity of a molecule (Water) caused by an uneven distribution of electrons betweem atoms
Cohesion atttraction between molecules of the same substance - causes water to bead together
Adhesion atttraction between molecules of different substances. Causes Capillary action
Mixtures Material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but NOT chemically combined
Kinds of Mixtures Solutions and Suspensions
Solution mixture where all the components of the solution are EVENLY combined
Suspension Mixture where all components are not fully disolved or combined
Ion A positively or negatively charged element due to the loss or gain of an electron
PH Scale to measure the strength of acids and bases
Acid any compound that forms a higher conventration of H+ ions in solution (PH < 7)
Base any compound that forms a lower concentration of H+ ions (higher OH- ions)in solution (PH > 7)
Buffers weak acids and bases that interact with strong acids and bases to maintain homeostasis
Monomer Small units joined together to form polymers
Polymers macromolecules formed by the joining of monomers
Polymerization process used to form macromolecules
4 Type of compounds in living things Carbohydrates,Lipids,Nucleic Acids, Protiens
Carbohydrates Made up of Carbon and Hydrogen, used as a source of energy and for structural purposes
Monosaccharides Basic sugar molecules, eg. glucous
Polysaccharides Macromolecule fromed from monosaccharides used to store excess sugar
Lipids Carbon and Hydrogen compounds of fatty acids and glycerol used to stire energy and for bioloigical membranes and waterproof coverings
Nucleic Acids Polymers of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen,Oxygen, PHOSPHOROUS - Compounds that store and transmit hereditary or genetic information (RNA,DNA)
Protiens Polymers of Amino Acids of Carbon, Hydrogen Oxygen and NITROGEN used to regulate cell processes and form bone an muscle, or transport substances in/out of cells to fight diseases. Amino acids always have NH2 at the end of the chain
Chemical Reaction Changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals by breaking of old bonds and forming new bonds
Reactants elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
Spontaneous reations Chemical reactions that release energy
Non-spontaneous reactions Chemical reactions that require energy to take place
Energy Absorbing Reactions Reactions whose ending energy is higher than its starting energy
Energy Releasing Reactions Reactions whose ending energy is lower than its starting energy
Activation energy The energy needed to start a chemical reaction - Measured from the starting point to the highest peak in the energy graph
Catalyst substances which speed up chemical reactions
Enzymes Protiens that are biological catalysts - speeding up reaction that take place in cells
Enzyme Graph Shows two reaction graphs one with lower activation energy casued by Enzyme catalyst
Substrates The reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Active Site location where substrates (reactants) and enzymes bind
Acidic Solutions contain higher concentrations of H+ ions than pure water with a PH < 7
Basic Solutions contain lower concentrations of H+ ions (more OH- ions) than pure water with a PH > 7
Capillary Action a force against gravity which enables water to rise in a tube or in plant roots. Caused by ADHESION - or the attraction betwen Water and the molecules of the glass or roots.
Created by: gpc1313