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Year 10 Genetics

Genetics

QuestionAnswer
What is the name for 1 or more forms of the same gene? Allele.
What is the name for the building blocks of proteins? Amino acids.
What is the name for the thread-like structure that contains all or part of the DNA? Chromosome.
What is the name for the 3-base group used in genetic code? Condon.
What is the name for the structure of DNA? Double-helix.
What is the basic hereditary unit that carries the instuctions to make a particular protein called? Gene.
What is the name for all of the information encoded in our genes? Genome.
What is the name for the genetic makeup of a cell or organism? Genotype.
What is a cell called that has pairs of different alleles? Heterozygous.
What is a cell called if it has identical alleles? Homozygous.
What is the name for the position of a gene on a chromosome? Locus (plural: loci).
What is the term used to describe a change in a cell's genetic code? Mutation.
What term describes the physical characteristics of an organism? Phenotype.
What is an allele called if it shows in a heterozygous genotype? Dominant.
What is an allele called if it is not expressed unless it's genotype homozygous? Recessive.
What is commonly used to determine the phenotypes of the childern using the genotypes of the parents? A Punnet Square.
In a Punnet Square, what are the parents called? Carriers.
Why can't a non-tongue-roller be heterozygous for the condition? Because a recessive allele will only be expressed in an individual if they have a homozygous genotype.
What are the 4 types of inheritance? Simple Inheritance; Incomplete Inheritance; Co-Domination; Sex-linked Inheritance.
Which is the form of inheritance where 2 or more alleles are expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous genotype? Incomplete Inheritance.
Which is the form of inheritance where the phenotype of the heterozygous organism is a combination of the phenotypes of the homozygous organism? Co-Dominance.
If a person has blood group 'O', what are the possible genotypes? OO.
If a person has blood group 'A', what are the possible genotypes? AA or AO.
If a person has blood group 'B', what are the possible genotypes? BB or BO.
If a person has blood group 'AB', what are the possible genotypes? AB.
What is the short form of "Deoxyribonucleic Acid"? DNA.
What did Watson & Crick discover in 1953? The DNA molecule.
What is a building block consisting of a sugar group, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base called? A nucleotide.
What are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine? The 4 nitrogen bases in a nucleotide.
What is it called when Adenine & Thymine, and Guanine & Cytosine pair together? Complementary pairing.
Each condon describes the type and sequence of what? Amino acids.
Cells use amino acids to make _______ _________. Protein molecules.
All genes begin with the same 3 letters: ___. ATG.
There are 3 "stop" condons. What are they? TAA, TAG, and TGA.
There are a total of ___ possible condons. Sixty-four.
There are only ___ amino acids. Twenty.
What is the process when DNA is copied exactly called? Replication.
Each _____ on a DNA strand codes for an _____ ____. Codon; Amino acid.
Mutations will only be inherited if they occur in what? In gametes or in the zygote cell.
What are X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet light known as? Mutagens.
What can mutagens cause? Cell mutations, that can become a cancerous tumour.
What is the most common form of mutation? Single-gene Mutation.
The disease Sickle-cell Anaemia is a result of __________. Single-gene Mutation.
What is the disease in which the individual has an extra chromosome (number 21)? Tri-21 (Down Syndrome).
What are body cells called? Somatic cells.
What are sex cells called? Gametes.
What are 2 types if cell division in animals? Mitosis and Meiosis.
How many daughter cells does Mitosis produce? Two.
What are the daughter cells produced by Mitosis called? Diploid cells.
True/false: Diploid cells are exact copies of their parents. True.
How many daughter cells does Meiosis produce? Four.
What are the daughter cells produced by Meiosos called? Haploid cells.
How many chromosomes do diploid cells have? 46 chromosomes each (23 pairs).
True/false: Haploid cells have 22 chromosomes each. False - they have 23 each.
Why does Meiosis produce 4 daughter cells? Beacuse there are 2 divisions.
What is the passing on of characteristics from the parents to the offspring called? Heredity.
What is the characteristic that is inherited called? A trait.
What is the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait called? A hybrid.
What is the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo called? The Cell Cycle.
What only pairs with Thymine (T)? Adenine (A).
What only pairs with Guanine (G)? Cytosine (C).
What are the 'rungs' of DNA made up of? The 4 nitrogen bases: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).
What is a nucleotide base attached to? Sugar.
What are the 'rails' of DNA made up of? Sugar and Phosphate.
What is the sugar in DNA? Deoxyribose.
True/false: The Y chromosome is small and carries very few genes. True.
It is possible that all humans had brown eyes until a ____ ______ ____ appeared. Blue mutant gene.
Somatic cells are _______ (2n). Diploid.
Gametes are _______ (n). Haploid.
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, with genes in the same loci are called what? Homologous pairs.
True/false: Homologous pairs cannot contain different alleles for each feature (eg. eye colour). False.
Females have a homologous pair of chromosomes (____). XX.
Males have an ____ chromosome. XY.
In a Pedigree, a male is represented by what? A square.
In a Pedigree, a female is represented by what? A circle.
What are chromosomes made of? DNA and proteins.
What is it called when the offspring will only display 1 form of a character? True breeding (or 'purebred').
What is the likelihood that a specific event will occur called? Probability.
Where are chromosoms located? In the nucleus of a cell.
Where are genes located? On the chomosomes.
Where are 2 identical copies of the chromosome located? At the centromere.
Who is the "father of modern genetics"? Gregor Mendel.
What is it called when A bonds to T and C to G? Base pairing.
Which type of blood is the universal donor? Type 'O'.
Which type of blood is the universal recipient? Type 'AB'.
What is the type of inheritance that is gneder-specific? Sex-linked Inheritance.
What speeds up a chemical reaction, and is released unchanged? An enzyme.
What are genetically identical cells, created through Mitosis called? Daughter cells.
Why would you expect half the children born in the world to be female? Because there is a 50% chance that the sperm carries an X- or a Y-chromosome.
Created by: Doctor Moreau