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Respiration & Phonat

A&P test 2

Accessory muscles of inspiration (4 types) Thoracic muscles, neck muscles, muscles of upper arm and shoulder, back muscles
Muscles of thoracic expiration Thoracic muscles, abdominal muscles of expiration
Only place in body where gas exchange happens Alveoli- minute sacs located deep within lungs
Air pressure: force exerted on walls of chamber by molecules
This principle forms basis for movement of air in and out of lungs Boyle's Law
Vertebral column sections Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
Bony support of respiratory system is composed of Rib cage and Vertebral Column
At the base of vertebral column is Pelvic girdle
Pectoral girdle is comprised of: Scapula and clavicle, which attach to sternum
This permits the ribs to rotate slightly during respiration, which allows them to elevate Cartilaginous attachment of ribs to sternum
Effect of head posture on airway patency Bending forward closes airway, flexing neck back opens it more
Brochial tree is characterized by Increasingly smaller tubes that branch into the depths of lungs
Esophagus (position, function) A long, collapsed, tube that lies posterior to trachea, provides conduit to digestive system
Bolus propelled to stomach by (2 things) gravity and peristaltic constractions of esophagus
Terminal bronchiole Final tube in bronchial tree (1 mm in diameter)
How big are alveoli and how many are there in mature lungs? 0.25 mm, 300 million in lungs
Which part of the alveoli permits gas exchange and why? The extremely thin membrane which is permeable to both oxygen and carbon dioxide
Each alveolus is covered with A bed of more than 2000 capillaries, allows for very efficient gas exchange
Surfactant Substance which reduces surface tension to keep alveolus from collapsing during respiration, when pressure is negative in the alveolus.
Pollutants entering respiratory tract are... removed through cleansing of beating epithelia that line bronchial passageway, along with coughing.
Effect of diaphgram contracting Enlarges vertical dimension of lungs, which causes pressure inside the lungs to become negative relative to the outside atmospheric pressure, so air is pulled into the lungs.
Effect of elevating rib cage Enlarges transverse dimension (anterior-posterior and lateral dimensions)
Pleural lining Lining which completely covers lungs and inner thoracic wall. Consists of Visceral and Parietal pleurae.
Pleural lining provides means of smooth contact for rough tissue, and mechanism for translating force of thorax enlargement into inspiration
Visceral pleurae Lining which encases lungs (inner membrane).
Regions of parietal pleurae Outer membrane Mediastinal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, costal and apical
Costal pleurae Cover inner surface of rib cage
Apical pleurae Cover superior-most region of rib cage
Pleural membranes are composed of elastic and fibrous tissue
Continuous sheet of pleurae provides airtight seal that is required for lungs to follow movement of thorax
Collapsed lung Results from the breakage of the visceral or parietal pleurae
Pleurisy Condition in which pleural lining of thoracic cavity are inflamed
Dry pleurisy Extreme pain while breathing due to loss of lubricating quality of intrapleural fluid
Lungs are pulled down when diaphragm contracts because of Association between pleurae and diaphragm
Passive/quiet inspiration only requires use of diaphragm
Diaphragm has attachments along lower margin of rib cage, sternum and vertebral column
Diaphragm forms reasonably complete separation between thoracic and abdominal chambers
Central tendon of diaphragm Intermediate region which is made up on large, leafy aponeurosis. Does not contract, but muscles that radiate from it do contract.
Vertebral attachment of diaphragm is accomplished by means of two crura
Three diaphragmatic hiatuses Abdominal aorta hiatus (attaches to vertebral column), esophageal hiatus, foramen vena cava.
Contraction of diaphragm pulls central tendon down and forward
What structures are involved in forced inspiration? Diaphragm plus thoracic muscles of inspiration, accessory muscles of neck, back muscles
What is the goal in forced inspiration? To raise the ribs, to increase the transverse dimension of thoracic cavity
External intercostal muscles Provide ribs with both unity and mobility, elevate rib cage
What happens in quiet expiration? Gravity brings ribs back down, abdominal viscera push diaphragm back up
Intrapleural pressure is always Negative relative to atmospheric pressure
Contraction of posterior thoracic muscles of inspiration Produces a lifting of the rib cage
Clavicular breathing A form of respiration in which a major source of thorax expansion comes from elevation of rib cage via contraction of neck accessory muscles, most notably sternocleidomastoid.
Forced expiration achieved in two ways Decrease front-to-back dimension by pulling down rib cage using muscles, squeezing their abdominal viscera which pushes diaphragm higher into thorax and decreases vertical dimension
Muscles of forced expiration Muscles of thorax, back and upper limb, and abdominal muscles
Accessory muscles of exppiration Act like a cumberbund wrapping abdomen
Thoracic fixation layers of abdominal muscles that help to compress viscera while simultaneously stabilizing thorax
Thoracic fixation used for Increasing strength and power for forced expiration, for muscles of upper body to pull against relatively rigid structure
Most inferior laryngeal cartilage Cricoid cartilage
Largest of laryngeal cartilages thyroid cartilage
Where is the anterior point of attachment for vocal folds? The inner surface of the thyroid cartilage (at thyroid notch)
Where is the posterior point of attachment for vocal folds? Vocal process of arythenoid cartilages
What are the paired cartilages that ride on superior surface of each arytenoid cartilage? Corniculate cartilages
What articulates with the thyroid cartilage by means of the thyroid's superior process? Hyoid bone
Located medially to hyoid bone Epiglottis (cartilage)
What cartilages reside within aryepiglottic folds? Cuneiform cartilages
Where are the valleculae found? Between tongue and epiglottis
What is the lateral space between the aryepiglottic membrane and the thyroid cartilage called? Pyriform sinus
Vocal folds are composed of how many layers of tissue? 5 layers
Most superficial layer of vocal folds Squamous epithelium
What aids in hydration of vocal folds? Squamous epithelium (aids in fluid retention)
Connective tissue that underlies mucosal epithelia in body Lamina Propria
Lamina Propria is composed of how many layers of tissue? 3 layers (Superior, intermediate, deep) 2 are elastin and one layer is collage
What muscle forms the fifth layer of vocal folds? Thyrovocalis Muscle
What makes up the bulk of the vocal folds? Thyrovocalis
Which muscle is the contractible tensor of the vocal folds? Thyrovocalis
Effort of phonation ___as individuals are dehydrates Increases
Effect of dehydration on voicing Increase in effort plus increased cycle-by-cycle variation (perturbation)
What is the entryway of larynx? Aditus
What separates the vocal and ventricular folds? Laryngeal ventricle
The variable space between vocal folds Glottis
What cartilages provide support for membranous laryngeal covering? Cuneiform cartilages
What forms the union between tongue and laryngeal structure? Hyoid bone
Where does the movement of cricoid and thyroid cartilages occur? The circothyroid joint.
When cricoid and thyroid cartilages move towards each other in front... Arytenoid cartilage moves farther away from thyroid cartilage, which tenses vocal folds.
What is the articulation between the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages? The cricoarytenoid joint
Articular facet for arytenoid cartilage permits the following movements: rocking, gliding, rotation
Effect of arytenoid rocking on vocal folds? Adducts them (brings them to midline)
Anterior-posterior gliding of arytenoids has what effect on vocal folds? Facilitates change in vocal fold length
What motion is limited to the extremes of abduction? Rotation of arytenoid cartilages
What attaches to the muscular process? Posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles, thyromuscularis, superior thyroarytenoid
What attaches to vocal process? vocal chords, thyrovocalis
Muscles that have both their origin and insertion on laryngeal cavities Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
Muscles that have one attachment on laryngeal cartilage and the other on nonlaryngeal structure Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Muscles that make fine adjustments of vocal mechanism such as opening closing, tensing, relaxing vocal folds Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
Which cranial nerve innervates all of intrinsic laryngeal muscles? Vagus (X)
Responsible for major adjustments of larynx,important in safe swallowing Extrinsic laryngeal
Three adductor muscles LAteral cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid, oblique arytenoid
Medial compression degree of force applied to vocal folds at point of contact
Increased medial compression is a functino of Increased force of adduction
Medial compression is important for regulation of vocal intensity
What is the sole abductor of vocal folds? Posterior Cricoarytenoid
Two glottal tensors Cricothyroid, thyrovocalis
Rocks thyroid forward relative to cricoid Cricothyroid muscle
Contraction of this muscle drwas the thyroid and cricoid cartilages further apart in front Thyrovocalis
Medial muscle of vocal folds Thyrovocalis
Relaxers of vocal folds (2) Thyromuscularis, superior thyroarytenoid
Result of using excessive adductory force Vocal hyperfunction
Vocal hyperfunction can result in laryngitis, vocal nodules, contact ulcers, or vocal polyps
Muscles that elevate hyoid and larynx are termed laryngeal elevators
Function of laryngeal depressors To depress and stabilize the larynx via attachment to hyoid bone
Function of aryepiglottic muscle narrows the size of laryngeal opening. protective
Created by: dashabul



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