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Motivation (ch.10)

Psych 111: Intro to Psych

Vigor + persistence of goal directed behavior. Helps move us toward our goal(s). Motivation
Motivation plays a significant role in adaptation; social need to affiliate, share resources, provide protection, procreation. Evolutionary Theory
1) homeostasis 2) hunger/food 3) hypothalamus Biological Human Needs/Motivation
Tendency for body (person) to want to maintain a state of constancy. Homeostasis
Normal body temp. = 98.6. If you get too cold your body shivers, if you get too hot your body sweats. Homeostasis
Energy is necessary for maintenance and growth. Search for a balanced diet. Hunger/food
Body is hard wired to want/need vitamins, protein or fruit. Hunger/food
Primary structure of brain which signals hunger and satiation (fullness). Hypothalamus
1) lateral 2) ventromedial Hypothalamus
Near side. turns hunger "on". stimulation yields increased eating. lesion or damage can cause starvation. lesion = lean Lateral -- hypothalamus
lower, middle. stimulation stops eating. lesion or damage can cause excessive eating lesion = fat rat Ventromedial -- hypothalamus
1) biological 2) social 3) psychological Factors that impact eating behaviors
genetics influence metabolism. bodily sensations: growl, distension. chemical signals to body. genetic mapping of "obesity genes" -- over 200 weight related genes. biological factors that impact eating behaviors
environmental influences on eating behaviors. complex and multiply determined. eat more in groups "only so much there so I need to get my share". expectation and memory of meals palatability social interactions social factors that impact eating behaviors
study with amnesia patients who often ate 3rd lunch if offered to them + non-amnesia patients refused the other lunches. Expectation and memory of meals (social factor that impact eating behaviors)
often we eat only to enjoy the taste sensations. Palatability (social factor that impact eating behaviors)
"lets go out to dinner!" -- we eat for social celebrate. Social Interactions (social factor that impact eating behaviors)
Thinking about food and what it "means". learned food habits/preferences. memories associated with food. belief and feelings regarding body image. cultural variations. food as a "substitute" for love, sex. Psychological factors that impact eating behaviors
What we're exposed to is what we become comfortable with, society has learned that after a meal you get dessert. Learned food habits/preferences -- (psychological factor that impact eating behaviors)
Robust = higher class and therefore could afford food. Cultural Variations -- (psychological factor that impact eating behaviors)
Body weight >30% of expected body weight based on height. Obesity
35.6% obese women
33.3% obese men
31.9% obese kids
BMI: 25-29.9 Overweight
BMI >30 Obese
1) increased high fat/easily accessible junk food 2) increased portion size 3) increased sedentary lifestyle 3 Main reasons for Obesity Rate in the U.S.
1) heart disease 2) type 2 diabetes 3) cancer 4) hypertension 5) stroke 6) sleep apnea 7) respiratory problems Health Risks of Obesity
Self-starvation resulting in loss of 20-50% of body fat. Fall to less than 15% body fat overall. Anorexia
Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimal normal weight for age + height. Anorexia
Bodyweight less than _____ of the expected weight is considered minimal? 85%
peak age 14-18. more common in females. 6% fatality rate. cultural variations in diagnosis. distorted self-perception. Anorexia characteristics
anxiety regarding maturation. difficulty expressing aggression in high achieving families (often bright+capable). hard to treat since patients don't see it as a problem. males increasing "obligatory runner" Theories for Anorexia
Repeated episodes of binging follow by self-induced vomiting. Laxative or enemas. Bulimia
1-3% of teenage girls. significant shame component. more treatable because see problems. normal weight ranges. Binge/Purge disorder
ulcers hernias hair loss dental damage electrolyte imbalances Bulimia health risks
Preference for those of same or opposite sex. Heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual. Sexuality
Survey that wasn't very effective but a good start? Kisney Survey
Identified sexual behaviors/preferences. Self-reported data (bias issues). Limited validity. Important beginning for research. Kisney Survey
________ of twins have the same sexual orientation? 50%
Need to understand actual sexual responses. Need direct systematic observations/measures (watch people have sex). Subjects: 1st prostitutes (question generalizability...non-normative sample). From general public --- age 18-92 (382 men/312 women). Masters + Johnson
Need be connected/related with others. Need for Affiliation
Proposed 4 functions we strive to affiliate. Hill
1) obtain + stimulation in our lives 2) get emotional support 3) get attention 4) permit social comparison 4 functions we strive to affiliate.
This need varies by person. This need is increased when we are put into scary situations. Need to Affiliate
What makes us want to succeed? What drives us to seek + reach goals? Basic human motive to achieve. Achievement Motivation
thrill at mastery, sense of achievement. motivation by success
fear of performing badly, increases anxiety. motivation by fear of failure
Believed there are optimal levels of anxiety/performance. Yerkes + Dodson
TAT Thematic Apperception Test
Used TAT to study achievement motivation even though he didn't create it. McClelland
Who developed the TAT? Murray
Projective test looks at themes of achievement. TAT
Subjects are given a picture and have to create a story based on the image. TAT
People high in motivation tend to work harder and more persistently, more future oriented, able to delay gratification for long term goals. TAT
Related to emotional motivation? Achievement Motivation
Components: 1) Cognitive 2) Physiological 3) Behavioral Emotion
Subjective conscious experience. Includes an "appraisal" or evaluation of the situation. Cognitive
Bodily arousal accompanies feeling states, fight or flight, asses with GSR/Polygraph (measures hear rate, bodily temp.) Physiological
records autonomic fluctuations --- can tell if someone is lying (when lying there are changes in their physiological state). Polygraph tests
NOT always accurate --- sensitive to those with high anxiety + hard to detect liars who are very comfortable with lying. Faults with Polygraph tests
Characteristic overt expressions of emotion. Behavioral
body language + facial expressions. YES! smiling! jumping up and down with excitement! Behavioral
1) happiness 2) sadness 3) anger 4) fear 5) surprise 6) disgust 6 Basic Emotions
Belief that facial expressions themselves can't control emotion BUT instead tell us how we're feeling. Facial Feedback Proponents
Norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions; culturally determined. Display Rules
Examples: nod of approval acceptable in U.S. rather than jumping up and down if you get a grade back in a class. Display Rules
1) James-Lang 2) Cannon-Bard 3) Schachter's 2 Factor Theories of Emotion
Conscious experience of emotion results from perception of arousal. "I'm scared BECAUSE I'm running" James-Lang Theory
Cognitive interpretations of a situation and response occur at the same time. Happens when brain sends out chemical signals. "I am running away AND feeling scared" Cannon-Bard Theory
People use 2 factors to identify emotion: physiological arousal + cognitive interpretation. Search environment for an explanation for reactions. Look for external cues to help label emotions. Schachter's 2 Factor Theory
Example: see bear and start to sweat. Physiological arousal
Example: OMG, I'm scared of the bear. Cognitive Interpretation
Created by: schlechy
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