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Organic & Neuro. Voi

obstruction or inflammation of the immature larynx. Stridor, low pitched flutter, dyspnea Laryngomalacia
Additional tissue present in the larynx, grows between VFs. Inhibts normal VF vibration. Haorase, aphonia, inhalatory stridor, compromised airway, high pitch Laryngeal webbing
Narrowing of subglottic space d/t interruption in criciod development or intubation. Feeble cry, aphonia Subglottal stenosis.
Openings that occur between esophagus and trachea Tracheoesophageal fistula
abnormal occlusion of the esophagus Esophageal atresia
Embryonic failure resulting in cleft structures. Weak, aphonia voice. Laryngotracheal cleft.
Benign tumor or epithelium and connective tissue. Wartlike growths. Most common cause of ped. hoarseness. Croupy cough, wheezing stridor, shortness of breath. Papilloma.
Chromosomal abnormality w/multiple birth defects. High pitched distress cry, HN. Cri du chat
Congenital, developmental delays. Hoarse, low pitch, hypo or hypernasality. Downs Syndrome.
Viral or bacterial. Inflammation due to infection or irritation. Croup. Acute laryngitis.
Irritation caused by smoking, air pollution, vocal abuse. Results in hoarse cough, fatigue. Chronic nonspecific laryngitis.
Vocal abuse, upper respiratory infection, severe cold. Infectious laryngitis.
Cricoarytenoid arthritis. Results in hoarseness, stridor, pain w/phonation. Laryngeal arthritis.
Malignant tumors, squamous cell carcinoma. CAused by smokin, chronic infections, herpes, trauma. LUmp in throat, discomfort, hoarseness, stridor. Carcinoma.
Small, hard ulcerations that develop on the medial aspect of vocal process of arytenoids. Caused by irritation, hard glottal attack, reflux, intubation, trauma. Results in vocal fatigue, pain, hoarseness. Contact ulcers (w/granulomas)
Soft, pliable, blood filled sacs. Caused by irritation, hard glottal attack, reflux, intubation, trauma. Breathy, low pitch. Hemangioma.
Usually unilateral, are on VFs or ventricular folds. Caused by abnormal blockage of ductal system of laryngeal mucous glands. Cysts.
Pituitary, adrenal, thryoid gland hypo or hyperfunctoin, amyloidosis. Results in too high or too low of a pitch. Endocrine changes.
Nonmalignant growth that may be a precursor to malignant growth. Reactive lesions to continued irritation. Results in hoarse, breathy, low pitch voice. Hyperkeratosis.
Total removal of the larynx when compromised by disease/trauma. Laryngectomy.
Indented medial edge of VFs. CAused by vocal abuse, reflux, or congenital. Results in breathiness, strained quality, little pitch change, low intensity, periods of aphonia, tension in laryngeal muscles. Sulcus vocalis.
Caused by recurrent branch lesion from disease, trauma, or idiopathic LMN damage. VF paralysis. Results in breathiness, weakness, diplophonia, noisy inhalation, stridor, nasality, weak cough. Flaccid dysphonia.
Bilateral UMN lesion to corticobulbar pathways in pyramidal tract. Lesions that affect CN IX-XII. Degeneration of certain motor nuclei that exit the brainstem. Symptoms include emotional labili moniopitch, harsh, artic problems, HN, brief phonation. Spastic (pseudobulbar) dysphonia, Pseudobulbar Palsy
Progressive neurological disease that attacks the neurons responsible for voluntary movement. VFs may be hypo or hyper fx, breathy, reduced loudness, wet hoarsenss, HN, artic problems Mixed Flaccid Spastic Dysphonia (ALS)
Body's immune system attacks CNS, leading to demylenination. Impaired loudness, pitch and/or breath control. Harsh, prosodid abnormalities, HN. Mixed flaccid spastic dysphonia (MS)
Caused by cerebellar lesions, loss of muscle coordination, inability to judge ROM, intention tremor. Results in voice tremor, lack of pitch/loudness control, hoarse, uncoordinated respiration. Ataxic Dysphonia.
Caused by basal ganglia lesions. Uncontrolled movement of articulators, Irregular pitch fluctuations. Voice arrest/phonation breaks. Effortful. Hyperkinetic Dysphonia.
Unknown etiology, inherited 50% of time. Causes affected body part to shake. Rhthmi changes in voice that vary in severity. Phonation breaks, quavering. Essential Voice Tremor.
Twitching of velum, pharyngeal walls, laryngeal muscles, eyes, diaphragm, tongue. Palatopharyngolaryngealmyoclonus.
Etiology is psychogenic, neurogenic, or idiopathic. Neurological dysfunction of motor movemements. Results in strained, groaning, staccato, effortful, lots of tension. Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia. (ADSD)
Spasmodic abduction of VFs. Glottal chink, bowed VFs, unvoiced consonants preiptiate breathiness. Phonation breaks. Abductor Spasmoic Dysphonia (ABSD)
Caused by irritation (GERD, PN drip, smoke, gas, dust), pollutants, neurogenic, psychogenic. Episodic restricted airway opening. VF adduction during inhalation/exhalation. Episodic VF spasms interfere w/respiration. Labored breathing and/or stridor. C Paradoxical VF motion
Viral etiology, flaccid, adverse effect on patient's ability to regulate higher pitch. Cricothyroid paralysis.
Etiology is unknown. Attributed to decrease in # of AcH receptors. Myoneural junction disease. Results in bilateral restricted VF movement. Breathy, hoarse, pitch control, HN. Myasthenia gravis.
Etiology is unknown, usually follows viral infection. Focal demylenization of S&C nerves. Lower extremities affected first, gradual progression upward. 65% recover. Gullian-Barre.
Unilateral damage above pharyngeal X results in... breathiness, reduced loudness and pitch range/control. Velum is affected-HN present. Noisy inhalation, stridor, dipliphonia.
Bilateral damge above pharyngeal X results in... probably aphonic, velum is immobile-very HN. Noisy inhalation, stridor, may be no phonation.
Unilateral damage above superior laryngeal nerve branch, but below pharyngeal branch results in... Breathiness, reduced loudness/pitch control. Resonance is normal. Weak or absent cough, glottal coup.
Bilateral damage above superior laryngeal nerve branch but below pharyngeal branch results in... Phonation absent, absent coup or cough, velum functions normally but no phonation to resonate. Patient may whisper.
Unilateral damage below the superior branch, affecting only the RLN results in... VF is in paramedian position, phonation may be breathy with slightly reduced loudness, resonance is normal, shortness of breath is possible, weak cough and coup may be present.
What type of nerve paralysis occurs more? RLN occurs more. And more likely that it is left RLN (longer pathway)
Any disorder that involves a problem with the VFs will have... hoarseness
Obstruction of the airway will most likely cause: stridor, maybe aphonia, weak cough, weak voice, glottal coup
If only one VF is affected, what may occur? Diplophonia
Additional tissue/mass will lead to... lower pitch
If the VFs can't fully approximate... breathiness will occur.
If something is on the VFs... throat clearing may occur.
If extra effort is needed to get air through the VFs.... may sound strained
If irritation caused the problem, tx will focus on... getting rid of the source of irritation.
Describe neurogenic dysphonias. Altered neurology that affects the vibration of the VFs, may also affect all other systems required for speech (respiration, resonance, articulation)
weakness/damage to LMN Flaccid dysarthria
inability to control movement, damage to UMN that eventually turns into CN 9-12 Spastic dysarthria
What are voice symptoms of MS? harsh/strained, low monopitch, HN, artic problems...depends what CNs are affected
Decreased dopamine in BG; rigidity, slow movement, limited ROM, resting tremor Hypokinetic dysarthria
damage to BG or AcH/dopamine, involuntary movement that is difficult to control Hyperkinetic dysarthria
Damage to the cerebellum or cerebellar control circuit; uncontrolled/discoordinated movement Ataxic Dysarthria
lesion to the CNS involving both the pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts. Voice sx: imprecise articulation, strained-harsh quality, reduced loudness Unilateral upper motor neuron dysarthria
What disorders are considered Relatively constant? Flacccid, Spastic, Mixed, Hypokinetic
What disorders are considered arhythmically fluctuating? ADSD, ABSD, Huntington's, Ataxic CP
What disorders are considered rhythmically fluctuating? EVT, Palatopharyngealmyoclonus, Superior laryngeal nerve paralysis
Created by: bertaka



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