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ACE PT EXAM (3rd ed)

Chapter 4: Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Composition of protein? 20 amino acids
time for muscles glycogen to be fully restored? 24 hours
Carb intake for people workin gout every other day? 55-65%
Adequat intake? the recommended daily intake -- only when RDA cant be determined
Adult protein requirements? .8 to 1.0 grams per kilogram (2.2 pounds per kio) of body weight
What is anemia? iron deficiency
Which nutrients are classified as antioxidants Vitamincs C & E, selenium, sulfur, and betacarotene
what ar ethe athlete protein requriements? 1.2 to 1.8 grams per kilogram of bodyweight.
what nutrient BEST replensies glycogen stores immediately after high-intensity exercise? baked potato
what are the calculations of carb intake? 4-5 grams per kilogram of body weight (1.8 -2.7 grams per pound)
what is carbohydrate loading? Technique used to double glycogen stores in the muscle
what is the most important nutrient for exercising muscles carbohydrates
what are vegtable fats that act like saturated fats & raise cholesterol? Coconut and palm oil
What are complete proteins? proteins that contains all essential amino acids; animal based
what are teh draw backs of carb loading? 1. reduced intake causes low blood sugar and ketoses 2. intense training -- injury
what are the effeects of low fat high carb diet? more glycogen for muscles; more power and speed
what are the effects of trans fatty acids? they raise cholesterol even higher than satuarated fats
what are the effects of excess protein consumption leaches away calcium, compromises carb/glycogen stores, increases fat
ergogenic acids? the use of vitamins and minerals to enhance metobic reactions
what are essential amino acids? compounds the body can't make for itself; building bloacks of carbs and vitamins
estimated average requirement? daily intakesmeets half for individual in a given group
fat soluble vitamins? too much can lead to toxicity..... stored by the body
findings of classic study on carb loading? 1. low carb supported 1 hourof exercise until exhaustion 2. normal carb suppoted 115 minutes 3. high carbs 170 minutes.
what are the fluid replacement guidlines? 2-3 cups per pounds lost; drink before you get thirsty; keep dring after thirst is quenched.
Number of calories in 1 gram of carboydrate and protein? FOUR
free radicals? oxygen molecule with a single electron
what is the function of iron? it is essential to the formation of hemoglobin
HDL ? High Density lipoproteins; GOOD cholestoral; Greater than 40 mg/dL; more protein; remove bad cholestoral; increase with moderate to vigorous execise.
high-glycemic foods are? carbs that quickly empty into the bloodstream; raise blood glucose and insulin & support glycogen synthese; good to eat after exercise.
what is hydrogenation? the process of breaking down bonds in unsatuated fats and making them solid?
what is the hypercaliuric effect? excretion of excess calcium in the urine; loss from bones
hypoglycemia low blood sugar
what is the impact on typical diet of MyPyramid? 1. increase fruit, veggie,whole grains = more vitamins, minerals and fiber 2. decrease satuated fats/trans fats & cholestorol 3. balance caloric intake with activity level to promote healthy weight
what are incomplete proteins. missing some essential amino acids: Plant based
low-density lipoprotein levels can be lowered by? increased intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
what is ketosis? increased blood acids
LDL? low density lipoproteins; bad cholesterol; <100 mg/dl; lower wth exercise, wieghtloss, more monounsatuated & poly unsaturated fats and lower total calories consumed
what are types of minerals Macro and Trace
what are the major clases of vegetarians vegan & lacto-ovo (eat egg & dairy)
what are the major of functions of carbohydrates? source of energy and fiber
what are the major functions of fat? energy storage; provides essential fatty acids; supports skin and hormone functions;transports fat soluble vitamins; most imporant fuel for light to moderate intensity exercise
major functions of minerals? hormone and nerve impulse components;Regulate muscle contractions & heart rythem; build tissues; comprise hemoglobine and hormones.
major functions of protien? build & repair tissue
major functions of vitamins? help release energy from food
major function of water? 605 of body -- cant be stored or conserved
myPyramid food Guidence system 1. daily physical activity 2. moderation 3. personalization -food/amount by age, sex activity level 4. proportionality: % each group daily 5. variety 6. gradual improvement - small daily steps to improve habits
NCEP National choleseraol education program: total <200
How many calories are in 1 gram of FAT NINE
what are some nutrient people usually dont get enough of? folate, vitamin B^, antioxidants, calcium , zinc
osteoporosis risk factors post-menopause; calcium intake; activity level
Phytochemicals; plant chemicals from fruits, veggies, spices, herbs, beans, grains and seeds
principle functions of carbohydrates? 1. primary energy sourse 2. brain/CNS function 3. helps body use fat more efficiently
Protein: helps to synthesize hormones, enzymes, and antibodies
six major classes of nutrients? protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, water
recommended calcium intake? pre-menopausal: 1,000 mg post menopouasal 1,500mg.
Recommended iron intake? eat meat; combo veggies and protein; enriched fortificed cereals and pastas; leafy greens/legumes, whole grains
Recommendations regarding amino acid supplementaions? Discourage; can cause toxicit, amino acids imbalance; deficiency in protein nutrients if used to replace protein
recomendations regarding vitamin supplements not needed with a balanced diet
recommendations regarding sports drinks 5-10% carbohydrate concentrations
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) Nutrient leveles recommended by the FOod and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sience; Designed to meet the needs of the same age and gender; average daily intake for health
Recommended nutrient intakes; Protein: 50-70g 12-20% total calories CARBS: 125-400g 5565% total calories;FAT: 30-65g 25-305 total calories; vitamins and minerals; per RDA WATER 2-3qt/8-12 cups daily
Revised method of carb loading; gradual reduction of exercise duration and increase of carb intake
Role of vitamins and minerals serve as coenzymnes in metobolic reactions that release energy, transport/consume oxygen and maintain cell integrity.
Saturated fatty acids? carries maximum # of hydrogen atoms
# of calories in 1 gram of alcohol SEVEN
What is the primary fuel for exercise Stored carbs or glycogen
Symptoms of oversupplementation Diarrhea, vomitting, skin rash, general malaise
Tolerable upper intake level? Maximum daily intake
Triglycerides bulk of dietary fat; glyceral + 3 fatty acids
USDA DIETARY GUIDLINES; 1. consume adequate nutrition within calorie limits 2. promote weight management 3. incorporate physical activity 4. fruits veggies low/non fat dairy 5. appropriate fats 6 fiber rich carbs-fruits veggies whole grains 7. balance sodium and potassium
MORE USDA DIETARY GUIDLINES 8. limite alcohol 9. food safty
USDA guideline adjustment for increased physical activity. increase carbs to 65% of total intake
Approx 60% of the body is compoed of what major nutrient WATER
What are the types of vitamins water and fat soluble
Water soluble vitamins? Are not stored by the body BUT mega doses can cause toxicity
Way to combine incomplete protein to create complete protein? 1. incomplete + incomplete (rice & beans; peanut butter & bread) 2. incomplete + complete (cearal and milk)
way to wean from excessive supplements: gradually replace with food nutrients
way to monitor fluid levels? weigh-in pre and post exercise 2. check color of urine dark = need fluids.
Created by: kyfleming2