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The A of PS

The Art of Public Speaking Exam 1

stage fright anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience
adrenaline a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress
positive nervousness controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation
visualization mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation
critical thinking focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion
speaker the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener
message whatever a speaker communicates to someone else
channel the means by which a message is communicated
listener the person who receives the speaker's message
frame of reference the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference
feedback the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker
interference anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners
situation the time and place in which speech communication occurs
ethnocentrism the belief that one's own group of culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
ethics the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
ethical decisions sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines
name-calling the use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups
Bill of Rights the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution
plagiarism presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own
global plagiarism stealing a speech entirely form s single source and passing it off as one's own
patchwork plagiarism stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own
incremental plagiarism failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people
paraphrase to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words
hearing the vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain
listening paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
appreciative listening listening for pleasure or enjoyment
empathetic listening listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
comprehensive listening listening to understand the message of a speaker
critical listening listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
spare "brain time" the difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 150 w/m) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 w/m)
active listening giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view
key-word outline an outline that briefly notes a speaker's main pints and supporting evidence in rough outline form
topic the subject of a speech
brainstorming a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas
general purpose the broad foal of a speech
specific purpose a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech
central idea a one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech
residual message what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech
catalogue a listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library
call number a number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where they can be found on the shelves
periodical database a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines
abstract a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author
reference work a work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers
general encyclopedia a comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches of human knowledge
special encyclopedia a comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc.
yearbook a reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year
biographical aid a reference work that provides information about people
virtual library a search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
sponsoring organization an organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet
research interview an interview conducted to gather information for a speech
preliminary bibliography a list compiled early in the research process of works that look as if they might contain helpful information about a speech topic
strategic organization putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience
main points the major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain form two to five main points
chronological order a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
spatial order a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern
causal order a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship
problem-solution order a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
topical order a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
supporting materials the materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony
connective a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them
transition a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
internal preview a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss
internal summary a statement in the body of a speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
signpost a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas
rhetorical question a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud
credibility the audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic
goodwill the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind
preview statement a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body
crescendo ending a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
dissolve ending a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
preparation outline a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, sub points, connectives, conclusion and bibliography of a speech
visual framework the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas
bibliography a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech
speaking outline a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech
delivery cues directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech
denotative meaning the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
connotative meaning the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
concrete words words that refer to tangible objects
abstract words words that refer to ideas or concepts
clutter discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
imagery the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
simile an explicit comparison, introduced with the word 'like' or 'as', between things that are essentially different yet have something in common
cliché a trite or overused expression
metaphor an implicit comparison between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common
rhythm the pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words
parallelism the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
repetition reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences
alliteration repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words
antithesis the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure
inclusive language language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors
generic 'he' the use of 'he' to refer to both men and women
nonverbal communication communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words
manuscript speech a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
impromptu speech a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
extemporaneous speech a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
conversational quality presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed
volume the loudness or softness of the speaker's voice
pitch the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice
inflections changes in the pitch or toe of a speaker's voice
monotone a constant pitch or tone of voice
rate the speed at which a person speaks
pause a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech
vocalized pause a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as 'uh', 'er', or 'um'
vocal variety changes in a speaker's rate, pitch and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness
pronunciation the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
articulation the physical production of particular speech sounds
dialect a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
kinesics the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication
gestures motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech
eye contact direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
model an object, usually built to scale, that represents another object in detail
graph a visual aid to show statistical trends and patterns
line graph a graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space
pie graph a graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns
bar graph a graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items
chart a visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form
transparency a visual aid drawn, written, or printed on a sheet of clear acetate and shown with an overhead projector
multimedia presentation a speech that combines several kinds of visual and/or audio aids in the same speech
font a complete set of type of the same design
informative speech a speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding
object anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form
process a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product
event anything that happens or is regarded as happening
concept a belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like
description a statements that depicts a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness
comparison a statement of the similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.
contrast a statement of the differences among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.
personalize to present one's ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience
Created by: klugdethloff
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