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Ap Biology Ch. 6

A Tour of the Cell

QuestionAnswer
light microscopes (LM) An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens`
organelle one of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
electron microscope (EM) A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousand fold greater than that of a light microscope
scanning electron microscope (SEM) A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography
transmission electron microscope (TEM) A microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections; primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells
cell fractionation The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by cetrifugation
ultracentrifuge the most powerful machines in cell fractionation used to separate the cell by rotating 130,000 revolutions per min.
prokaryotic cell A type of cell laking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archea) are called prokaryotes
cytosol The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm
nucleiod A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
eukaryotic cell A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes.
cytoplasm The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane
plasma membrane The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition
nuclear envelope The membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus, spearating it from the cytoplasm
nuclear lamina A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus
chromosome A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
chromatin The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
nucleolus A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomesand active in the synthesis of ribosomes
ribosome A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunit
endomembrane system The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles
vesicle A sac made of membrane inside of cells
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions
smooth ER The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes
rough ER The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes
glycoprotein A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate
transport vesicle A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell
Golgi apparatus an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum
lysosome A membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
phagocytosis A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances, accomplished by macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells
food vacuole a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis
contracile vacuole A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of certain cells
central vacuole A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse rolls in reproduction, growth and developement
tonoplast A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the vacuolar contents called cell sap; also known as the vacuolar membrane
mitochondira An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration
chloroplast An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that abosorbs sunlight, and uses it to drive synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
peroxisome A microbody containing enzymes that trasfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide
cristae An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP
mitochondiral matrix The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle
plastid One of a family of closely related plant organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts)
thylakoid A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
granum A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
stroma A microscopic pore surrounded by guarded cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
cytoskeleton A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions
microtubule A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton
microfilament A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction
intermediate filament A component of the cytoskeleton that includes all filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments
centrosome Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organization center
centriole A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles involved in cell division
flagellum A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. The flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function
cilia a short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed fom a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane
basal body A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole
dynein A large contractile protein forming the side-arms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella
actin A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells
myosin A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction
pseudopodia A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
cytoplasmic streaming A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells
cell wall protective layer external to plasma membrane in plant cells, prokaryotes, fungi + some protists.In plant cells, wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in polysaccharide-protein matrix.
primary cell wall A relatively thin and flexible layer fisrt secreted by a young plant cell
middle lamella A thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells
secondary cell wall A strong a durable matrix often deposited in several laminated layers for plant cell protection and support
extracellular matrix (ECM) The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of proteins and polysaccharaides
collagen glycoprotein in the ECM of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
proteoglycan A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells, rich in carbohydrate.
fibronectin A glycoprotein that helps cells attach to the extracellular fibers
integrin a receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the ECM and the cytoskeleton
plasmodesmata An open channel in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell
tight junction A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells
desmosome A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as an anchor
gap junction A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells
Created by: gnomealot