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CSD Quiz 2

uhhh...CSD Quiz 2?

QuestionAnswer
English Alphabet -has 26 letters but 40 sounds(t,h has 4 sounds(tap,hit,thing,this)) -a has 3 sounds(wait,father,bat) -one letter can correspond w/ multiple sounds -2 or 3 letters can represent a single sound
English Alphabet 2 -same sound can be represented many different ways(six,miss,scene,circle,psalm, listen quartz) -# of letters vs. # of sounds chew=3 sounds Silent sounds(gh in weight)
Purpose of IPA Unique symbol for each sound eliminates confusion of the english alphabet(contained within //)
Articulation Shaping of speech sounds by lips, tongue, and other articulators motor coordination to actually say sounds, words, and sentences
Phonology - -making distinctions between phonemes
Phoneme speech sound, smallest unit of sound that has meaning(mat vs. bat)
Allophones variations of a phoneme(do not affect meaning)(kit and skill)
Vowels always voiced, open vocal tract-little constriction
4 features that change sound tongue height, tongue frontness,lip roundness,tension
Vowel process velum raised,tongue alters shape of oral cavity, vocal folds vibrate
Diphthongs combo of vowels,, produced by continuous change in vocal tract shape
Glottel produced by letting air pass through vocal folds, abrupt closure of folds
Manner of articulation stops,fricatives,affricates,glides,liquids,nasals
Consonants produced by constricting the vocal tract
Classification of consonants voicing,place,manner
Voicing presence or absence of vocal fold vibrations
Place location of the constriction
Manner degree or type of constriction
Bilabial(place) two lips, /b/, /m/, /p/
Labiodental(place) lips and teeth, /v/,/f/
Interdental(place) tongue and teeth, between teeth("th")
Alveolar(place) tip of tongue and alveolar ridge(/t/,/d/,/n/,/s/,/z/,/l/
Palatal(place) blade of tongue and hard palate("sh", "ch", "j", "y")
Velar(place) dorsum of tongue and soft palate, /k/,/g/,"ng"
Voiced phonemes sound source is vocal fold vibration(/z/,/b/,/v/)
Voiceless phonemes no vocal fold vibration, sound source is noise,(/s/,/p/,/f/)
Which sounds are acquired first? Vowels or consonants? Vowels
Which consonants develop early? stops, nasals, & glides
Which consonants develop later? fricatives,affricates, and liquids
Stops close off airflow,build up air pressure in oral cavity,release(p,b,t,k)
Fricatives hissing sounds,air forced through small space in oral cavity(s,f,z,v)
Affricates air is stopped,then forced through narrow passage(ch
Glides gradually change shape of articulators from consonant to vowel("w","y")
Glides aka "semi-vowels" least amount of restriction(most vowel-like)
Liquids air is released on both sides of tongue(held at midline)
Nasal w/ velopharyngeal port open, resonance in the nose(n,m,ng)velum lowered
Articulation Disorder inability to produce speech sounds effectively(1or2sounds)
Types of articulation errors omission,substitution,distortion,addition
omission target sound is absent, book-->boo
substitution wrong sound is substituted for target sound rain-->wain
distortion imprecise production,"th" or "s"-->air escapes from sides of tongue
addition a sound that does not belong is added to word(fairly unusual)soup>soups
Phonological disorder involve more than errors with just a single phoneme
systematic patterns of errors stopping of fricatives(s>t, z>d AND sh>t)
final consonant deletion deleting many different final sounds(hat>ha;bus>bu)
phonological disorder immature phonological system,deeper than articulation prob
phonological disorder2 difficulty developing mental representations of phonemes
phonological disorder3 difficulty developing boundaries around phonemes(t&d)
phonological processes patterns of speech sound subs or omissions(systematic)
Many phonological process are... typical part of early speech sound development
In typical development, many processes disappear by age 3 and most by age 6
When assessing... need multiple examples to determine phono process(pattern)
Stopping stops are substituted for fricatives(very>berry,say>tay,that>dat)
Fronting back sounds are produced as frontal sounds(go>doe, key>tee)
Consonant deletion consonants are deleted,coat>coe, read>ree, bike>bi(final)
syllable deletion weak(unstressed)syllables are deleted(banana>nana,brella)
Cluster reduction omission of one or more consonants in a cluster(blue>boo)
Causes of disorders hearing loss,mei,mr,language,reading problems, family hist.
functional cause of disorder no known cause
Developmental speech impairments may diminish over time, w/ treatment
By age 2, children are typically 50% intelligible age 3, 75% intelligible
persistent frustration and unintelligibility is a warning sign of problem
Organic(known cause)of disorder hearing loss(may be functional or organic)
hearing loss tend to have voicing confusion,difficulty w/ frics and vowels
tongue tie short lingual frenulum
severe dental malocclusions overbite, underbite
Other organic disorders tongue thrust,dysarthria
tongue thrust abnormal swallow where tongue pushes forward
dysarthria paralysis, weakness or incoordination of the speech muscles
prognosis likelihood of improvement w/,w/o therapy
Indicators of prognosis consistency of errors,stimulability,error sound discrimination
4 major systems for speech resp,resonatory,phonatory,articulatory
speech motor control requires motor planning,motor program,speech motor control
motor planning what do i need to do?
motor programming how will i do it?
speech motor-control activating muscle movements
Motor execution mental representations of movements to be performed
Schemas become stronger after many experiences over time
stored schemas generate instructions to the muscles necessary for speech
damaged schemas result in imprecise speech, reduced intelligibility
schemas may be intact but neuromuscular impairments impede execution
Motor speech disorder impairment in speech cause by defects in nms,mcs or both
Underlying systems are involved w/ motor planning,programming,execution
results in difficulty producing fluent, intelligible, rapid speech
MSD Impairment in the planning,coordinations,timed execution of speech movement
MSD caused by congenital diseases,nervous system damage, degenerative,acquired
MSD breakdowns can occur at planning(muscles paralysis, muscle weakness, tremors
MSD breakdowns can occur at planning,motorspeech,programming(systemcoordination)
2 types of MSD dysarthria, apraxia(planning)
dysarthria impairment of execution of speech,results from underlying muscle prob
apraxia voluntary movement impaired w/o muscle impairment(can't cough,swallow)
Underlying muscular disturbances(dysarthria) muscle tone,strength,speed,accuracy
respiration in dysarthria not enough breath supply
phonation in dysarthria high/low pitch,voice is weak,breathy, variable volume
Resonance in dysarthria hypernasality
articulation in dysarthria omissions/distortions,imprecise consonants,vowels
prosody in dysarthria slow/fast rate,short rushes of speech,stress variations
types of dysartria flaccid,spastic,ataxic,hypokinetic,hyperkinetic,mixed
Lower motor neurons tracts originate in brain stem/spinal cord &connect w/muscle
LMN in flaccid paralysis muscles are soft and flabby; lack tone
Flaccid dysarthria lesion in LMN or muscle itself
flaccid dys. characterized by muscle weakness,low muscle tone(hypotonia)
flaccid char. red.breathsup.,breathy voice,monopith,hypernasal,inacc artic.
Spastic dysarthria (hypotonal)muscles are too rigid and have too much tone
Upper motor neurons(UMN) neuronal tracts in motor cortex,connect2b.stem and s.c
Spastic dysarthria legion in:UMN
Char. of Spastic slow w/ jerky,imprecise artic.,strained/strangled voice quality
Most common cause of spastic stroke(effects can be temp/permanent)pseudobulbar
Ataxic dys. lesion in cerebellum(fast-paced)
Ataxic char weak muscle,difficulty w/ muscle coordination
ataxic speech hoarse/breathy,irregular rhythm,breakdowns in artic precision
causes of ataxic degenerative diseases,stroke and TBI
hypokinetic dysarthria lesion in basal ganglia
hypokinetic char. lack approp.movement,rigid musc.(hypotonia),static tremors
hypo speech red.breath supp.,red.loud,red.artic,limit.rangeofmotion,burstofspeec
hypokinetic associated w/ parkinsons disease(loud bursts of speech w/ pauses)
Hyperkinetic lesion in extrapyramidal system and basal ganglia
characterized by uncont.movements,twisting,writhing,inc.movement,tremors
speech characteristics irreg.breathing,volume,quality,pitch changes,rapid bursts
hyperkinetic dysarthria associated w/ huntington's chorea(breakdowns in artic)
Mixed dys. -combo of lesion locations, several systems
mixed dys associated w/ ALS
ALS lesion in umn and lmn, progressive and degenerative neuro-muscular disease
Created by: JStiadle
 

 



Voices

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