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stimuli energies from the world around us that affect us in some way
receptors specialized cells that convert environmental energies into signals for the nervous system
electromagnetic spectrum the continuum of all the frequencies of radiated energy
pupil adjustable opening in the eye
iris the colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil
retina a layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball
cornea a rigid transparent structure on the outer surface of the eyeball
lens a flexible structure that can vary in thickness
accomodate to adjust its focus for objects at different distances
fovea the central area of the human retina
vitreous humor light passes through this clear jelly-like substance after passing through the pupil
cones adapted for color vision, daytime vision, and detailed vision
rods adapted for vision in dim light
dark adaption gradual improvement in the ability to see in dim light
ganglion cells neurons that receive their input from the bipolar cells
optic nerve the axons from the ganglion cells join to form this
blind spot the area of the retina through which the optic nerve exits
opponent process theory We perceive color in terms of paired opposites- red versus green, yellow versus blue, and white versus black.
negative afterimages experiences of one color after the removal of another
color constancy tendency of an object to appear nearly the same color under a variety of lighting conditions
retinex theory we perceive color when the cerebral cortex compares various retinal patterns
trichromatic theory a.k.a. Young-Helmholtz theory; states that our receptors respond to three primary colors: blue, green, and red
sensation the conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system
perception the interpretation of sensation information
sound waves vibrations of the air or of another medium
pitch perception closely related to frequency
loudness perception that depends on the amplitude of sound waves
cochlea fluid-filled canals of the snail-shaped organ that contains the receptors for hearing
conduction deafness results when the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
hertz (Hz) the number vibrations (cycles) per second
frequency principle a sound wave through the fluid of the cochlea vibrates all the hair cells, which produce action potentials in synchrony with the sound waves
volley principle groups of hair cells respond to each vibration by producing an action potential
place principle the highest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells near the stirrup end, and lower frequency sounds vibrate hair cells at points farther along the membrane
vestibular sense detects the tilt of the head, acceleration of the head, and orientation of the head with respect to gravity
semicircular canals lined with hair cells and filled with a jellylike substance
otolith organs report the direction of gravity and excite different sets of hair cells
cutaneous senses skin senses (a.k.a. somatosensory system)
histamine chemical released by tissues recovering from an injury or reacting to a mosquito bite
anterior cingulate cortex brain area responsive to the emotional aspect
gate theory the idea that pain messages must pass through a gate, presumably in the spinal cord, that can block the messages
substance P neurotransmitter released by intense pain
endorphins neurotransmitters that inhibit the release of substance P and thereby weaken pain sensations
capsaicin stimulates receptors that respond to painful heat
phantom limb continuing sensations, including pain, in a limb long after it has been amputated
taste detects chemicals on the tongue, governs eating and drinking
taste buds located on the folds on the surface of the tongue
olfaction sense of smell
pheromones chemicals mammals release into the environment
synesthesia condition in which a stimulus of one type, such as sound, also elicits another experience, such as color
vomeronasal organ set of receptors near, but separate from, the standard olfactory receptors
just noticeable difference (JND) the smallest difference that people could detect between one stimulus and another
absolute sensory threshold the intensity at which a given individual detects a stimulus 50% of the time
"hit" reporting the presence of a stimulus
"correct rejection" reporting the absence of a stimulus
"miss" failing to detect a stimulus that was present
"false alarm" reporting a stimulus when none was present
signal-detection theory the study of people's tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses, and false alarms
subliminal perception the idea that stimuli sometimes influence our behavior even when they are presented so faintly or briefly that we do not perceive them consciously
brightness contrast the increase or decrease in an object's apparent brightness by comparison to objects around it
feature detectors specialized neurons in the visual cortex that respond to the presence of simple features, such as lines and angles
Gestalt psychology field that focuses on our ability to perceive overall patterns (suggest feature detectors are not enough)
bottum-up process tiny elements combine to produce larger items
top-down process applying all experience and expectations to interpret what each item must be in context
figure and ground object from the background
reversible figures stimuli that can be perceived in more than one way
proximity tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonging to a group
similarity tendency to perceive objects that resemble each other as a group
continuation filling in of the gaps
closure imagining the rest of the figure
common fate perceiving objects as part of the same group if they change or move in similar ways at the same time
good figure simple, familiar, symmetrical figure
visual constancy tendency to perceive objects as keeping their shape, size, and color, despite certain distortions in the light pattern reaching our retinas
induced movements incorrectly perceive the object as moving against a stationary background (apparent movement)
stroboscopic movement illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary images
depth-perception perception of distance (depending on several factors)
retinal disparity the difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas
convergence degree to which they turn into focus on a close object
binocular cues depend on both eyes
monocular cues enable someone to judge depth and distance with just one eye
motion parallax the difference in speed of movement of images across the retina as you travel
optical illusion misinterpretation of a visual stimulus
moon illusion the moon at the horizon appears about 30% larger than it appears when it is higher in the sky
chromosomes strands of hereditary material
genes sections along each chromosome that control the chemical reactions that direct development
dominant a single copy of the gene is sufficient to produce its effect
recessive effects appear only if the dominant gene is absent
sex chromosomes determine whether an individual develops as a male or as a female
sex-linked genes (x-linked genes) genes located on the x-chromosome
sex-limited gene occurs equally in both sexes but exerts its effects mainly or entirely in one or the other
heritability an estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity [ranges from 1-0]
multiplier effect a small initial advantage in some behavior, possibly genetic in origin, alters the environment and magnifies that advantage
monozygotic twins develop from a single-fertilized egg and therefore have identical genes [same sex only]
dizygotic twins develop from two eggs and share only half their genes [like brothers and sisters do]
interaction an instance in which the effect of one variable depends on some other variable
temperament the tendency to be active or inactive, outgoing or reserved, and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli
Phenylketonuria (PKU) inherited condition that, if untreated, leads to mental retardation
phenylalanine common constituent of proteins
zygote fertilized egg cell
fetus about 8 weeks after conception
fetal alcohol syndrome a condition marked by stunted growth of the face head and body; malformations of the face, heart, and ears; and nervous system damage, including seizures, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and mental retardation
habituation decreased response to a repeated stimulus
dishabituation when a change in a stimulus increases a previously habituated response
cross-sectional study compares groups of individuals of different ages at the same time
longitudinal study follows a single group of individuals as they develop
selective attrition the tendency for certain kinds of people to drop our of a study
sequential designs researchers start with groups of people of different ages, studied at the same time, and then study them again at one or more later times
cohort a group of people born at a particular time or a group of people who enter an organization at a particular time
schema an organized way of interacting with objects
assimilation applying an old schema to new objects or problems
accommodation modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem
equilibration the establishment of harmony or balance between assimilation and accommodation
sensorimotor stage birth - 2 years
preoperational stage 2 years - 7 years
concrete operations stage 7 years - 11 years
formal operations stage 11 years onward
object permanence the idea that objects continue to exist even when we do not see or hear them
operations reversible mental processes
egocentric the child sees the world as centered around himself/herself and cannot easily take another person's perspective
theory of mind an understanding that other people have a mind, too, and that each person knows some things that other people don't know
conservation understand that objects conserve such properties as number, length, volume, area, and mass after changes in the shape or arrangement
stage of formal operations mental processes that deal with abstract, hypothetical situations; demand logical, deductive reasoning and systematic planning
zone of proximal development distance between what a child can do alone and what he can do with help
attachment a long term feeling of closeness toward another person
identity crisis when an adolescent is concerned with decisions about the future and the quest for self-understanding
identity diffusion those who have not yet given any serious thought to making any decisions and who have no clear sense of identity
identity moratorium considering the issues but not yet making decisions
identity foreclosure a state of reaching firm decisions without much thought
identity achievement outcome of having explored various possible identities and then making one's own decisions
midlife transition a time when they reassess their personal goals, set new ones, and prepare for the rest of life
terror-management theory use cope with our fear of death by avoiding thoughts about death, and by affirming a world view that provides self-esteem, hope, and value in life
sex roles the different activities expected of males and females
androgyny the ability to display both male and female characteristics
biculturalism partial identification with two cultures
authoritative parents parents who set high standards and impose controls, but are also warm and responsive to the child's communications
authoritarian parents set firm controls, but tend to be emotionally more distant from the child
permissive parents are warm and loving but undemanding
indifferent or uninvolved parents spend little time with their children and do little more than provide them with food and shelter
behaviorist insist that psychologists should study only observable, measurable behaviors, not mental processes
methodological behaviorists study only the events that they can measure and observe
intervening variable something that we cannot directly observe but that links a variety of procedures to a variety of possible responses
radical behaviorists deny that hunger, fear, or other internal, private events cause behavior
stimulus-response psychology the attempt to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response
unconditioned reflexes between a stimulus such as food and a response such as secreting digestive juices
classical (Pavlovian) conditioning the process by which an organism learns a new association between two stimuli-a neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a reflexive response
unconditioned stimulus (UCS) an event that automatically elicits an unconditioned response
unconditioned response (UCR) an action the the unconditioned stimulus elicits
conditioned stimulus (CS) response to it depends on the preceding conditions
conditioned response (CR) whatever response the conditioned stimulus begins to elicit as a result of the conditioning (training) procedure
acquisition process that establishes or strengthens a conditioned response
extinction to extinguish a classically conditioned response, repeatedly present the conditioned stimulus (CS) without the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus generalization extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to similar stimuli
spontaneous recovery a temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay
discriminate respond differently because the two stimuli predict different outcomes
drug tolerance users of certain drugs experience progressively weaker effects after taking the drugs repeatedly
blocking effect the previously established association to one stimulus blocks the formation of an association to the added stimulus
learning curve a graph of the changes in behavior that occur over the course of learning
reinforcement the process of increasing the future probability of the most recent response
operant (instrumental) conditioning the process of changing behavior by providing a reinforcement after a response
visceral responses responses of the internal organs
skeletal responses movements of leg muscles, arm muscles, etc.
reinforcer an event that follows a response and increases the later probability or frequency of the response
primary reinforcers are reinforcing because of their own properties
secondary reinforcers became reinforcing because of previous experiences
punishment decreases the probability of a response
positive reinforcement the presentation of an event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior
passive avoidance learning the individual learns to avoid an outcome by being passive
negative reinforcement a kind of reinforcement, and therefore, it increases the frequency of a behavior
reinforcement absence of something
escape learning if the response stops an outcome
avoidance learning if it prevents the outcome altogether
negative punishment punishment by avoiding something good
omission training the omission of the response leads to restoration of the usual privileges
extinction occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements
similar generalization the more similar a new stimulus is to the original reinforced stimulus, the more likely is the same response
discrimination yielding a response to one stimulus and not the other
discriminative stimulus a stimulus that indicates which response is appropriate or inappropriate
stimulus control the ability of a stimulus to encourage some responses and discourage others
shaping establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it
chaining reinforcing each behavior with the opportunity to engage in the next one
continuous reinforcement provide reinforcement for every correct response
intermittent reinforcement reinforcement for some responses and not for other
schedules of reinforcement rules for the delivery of reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule provides reinforcement only after a certain number of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule reinforcement occurs after a variable number of correct responses
fixed-interval schedule provides reinforcement for the first response after a specific time interval
variable-interval schedule reinforcement is available after a variable amount of time
applied behavior analysis (behavior modification) a psychologist tries to remove the reinforcers for unwanted behaviors and provides reinforcers for more acceptable behaviors
preparedness concept that evolution has prepared us to learn some associations more easily than others
conditioned taste aversion associating a food with illness
sensitive period early in first year of life where one learns most readily
social-learning approach we learn about many behaviors by observing the behaviors of others
vicarious reinforcement (punishment) substituting someone else's experience for your own
self-effacacy the belief of being able to perform the task successfully
Created by: n00675590