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Oral Path 3

What is the immune reaction designed to do? To help the healthy body resist and defend against certain injurious agents.
How is the immune reaction different than the inflammatory response? It has the capacity to remember and responds more quickly to a foreign substance that enters the body a second time.
What are antigens? Foreign substances against which the immune system defends the body. (mainly proteins and are often MO's and their toxins)
What are antibodies? Protein molecules that a person's immune system produces in response to antigens.
What are the 4 types of diseases? 1. immune deficiency disorders 2. hypersensitivity disorders 3. autoimmune disorders 4. immune cellular proliferative disorders
What is the Normal Immune System Function? -To destroy and isolate antigen-bearing injurious agents. -To learn to recognize "self" during development and does not attack own body cells -Protection is provided by two systems: cell-medicated immunity and antibody mediated (humoral) immunity
What are the primary white blood cells involved in the immune response and where are they derived from? Lymphocytes from stem cells in the bone marrow
What are the two distinct classes of lymphocytes? T cells (T lymphocytes) and B cells (B lymphocytes)
Lymphocytes are memory cells, what does that mean? They will develop a memory for the specific antigen and will react or attack when the antigen or injurious agent reappears
Where do B lymphocytes reside? In the lymph nodes
What are the functions of B lymphocytes? -Travel to the site of injury -Memory cells -Differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies
What are the 2 types of cells that B lymphocytes turn into and what do they do? 1. Plasma cells produce antibodies specifically directed agains the antigen 2. Memory cells retain the memory of previously encountered antigens
What do antibodies do? -They circulate in the blood and percolate through tissues until they encounter the specific antigen. -They will then bind themselves to that antigen and this complex may be opsonized, agglutinated, or precipitated for inflammatory phagocytosis.
When the antigen-antibody complex has been opsonized, agglutinated, or precipitated for inflammatory phagocytosis, what can it lead to? Chemotaxis of neutrophils and enhance the vascular inflammatory reaction
Where to T lymphocytes process and mature? In the thymus gland
Where do T lymphocytes reside? In the lymphoid nodules
What do T lymphocytes do? Develop memory for a single specific foreign antigen associated with an injurious agent
T lymphocytes are passed down through generations to what? Numerous T-cell progeny
What do T lymphocytes do when they encounter an enemy? They react by sending messages to other cells, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages
What do T-Helper cells do? They increase the functioning of the B lymphocytes and enhance the antibody response
What do T-Suppressor cells do? Suppress the functioning of the B lymphocytes and T-killer cells that are active
What are the chemical messages sent by T lymphocytes called and what do they do? Lymphokines or cytokines: they instruct the other cells to disable the antigenic agent
What might T lymphocytes do? Inhibit the migration of neutrophils and stimulate the activity of fibroblasts to enhance repair
What are the functions of macrophages? (a type of T lymphocyte) -They are involved in the immune response -They are active in the phagocytosis of foreign substance and help the B and T cells -Process and present the antigen to the lymphocytes -Serve as a link between inflammatory and immune responses
Antigen-processing cells, such as macrophages, do what? Change or process the antigen until it is recognizable to the lymphocytes
T-cells serve as what? The "team leader"
How do other lymphokines (chemical messages) have effects on macrophages? -Initiation of macrophage chemotaxis -Activation of phagocytosis -Aggregation (grouping together) at the area of the injury
What are the 2 functions of T lymphocytes? 1. Directly destroy the antigenic agent 2. Send messages back to T cells
When do Immune Deficiency diseases occur? When the immune system does not form or mature completely or when the lymphocytes or antigen-processing cells are suppressed or destroyed by exogenous factors
What do we need to remember about transplantation? -All cells bear surface antigens -Immune system is programmed to recognize these antigens as self -Lymphocytes and macrophages will begin the immune process and reject transplanted tissues -Immune suppressive drugs are used for transplant patients
What are the 5 classes of Gamma Globulins? IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE
What do IgG gamma globulins do? They have 2 binding sites, they are the only antibody to cross the placenta and are the only defense and infant has
What do IgM gamma globulins do? Primary response, agglutination has 10 binding sites (wagon wheel)
What do IgA gamma globulins do? Main immunoglobin is in secretions, prevents attachment of antigen to mucous membranes-has J chain and secretory component
What do IgD gamma globulins do? Has no known antibody function at this time
What do IgE gamma globulins do? Mediates anaphylactic hypersensitivity
What is immunity? Increased responsiveness that results from the retained memory of an already incountered antigen
Active Immunity Can be natural or acquired (own body has produced its own antibodies through activation of the immune system as a result of antigenic stimulation)
Natural Active Immunity When a disease is caused by an MO and protection against further attack by that MO is conferred to the individual if the body recovers from the disease
What else should we know about Natural Active Immunity? No memory, non-specific, not acquired from previous antigen exposures, born with it, does NOT improve after exposure (birth and breastfeeding)
Acquired Active Immunity Injected with pathogenic MO's- vaccination, occurs after exposures, improves with repeated exposures, mediated by antibodies and T cells, long term memory, can be passive or active
Immunization Production of acquired immunity- lowers the risk of an antigen causing disease because it safely prepares the immune system to fight future attacks by the disease-causing MO
Passive Immunity Using antibodies produced by another person to protect an individual against infectious disease- acquired or natural- protection achieved by the introduction of preformed antibody or immune cells to a nonimmune host
How can we get Passive Immunity? From mother through placenta, puncture wound with needle in dental office
Hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases are examples of what? Damage caused by the immunte response
Ideal Vaccine -Contains enough antigen to protect against infection -Contains antigens of all strains of pathogen -Few or no side effects -Does not CAUSE the disease
What is a Hypersensivity Disease and what are the 4 types? -Immune system overreacts to an antigen- can be B or T cells -Causes necrosis and dysfunction of tissue by these mechanisms -Anaphylaxis allergy, Cytolytic effect, Immune complex disease, Delayed hypersensitivy
Anaphylaxis Allergy 1. Reacts to harmless antigens by making antibodies 2. Attach to mast cells which release histamine 3. Can be life threatening: unable to breathe 4. Histamine and leukotrienes are activated and severe acute inflam. response causes clin signs & symptoms
Cytolytic Effect 1. Normal cells appear antigenic to the immune system and are regarded as forein B cells 2. Antibodies coat these normal cells, resulting in cell lysis from either complement fixation or lymphocyte cytotoxicity
Immune Complex Disease 1. Relatively harmless antigens form complexes with antibodies 2. Entrapped in blood vessel walls where complement is activated 3. Stimulate vascular & cellular stages of ACUTE INFLAMMATION and damages tissues 4. Settles in the glomuerli of the kidney
Delayed Hypersensitivity 1. Relatively harmless antigen stimulates a T lymphocyte sensitivity 2. Normal tissue damaged by immunte response
Hypersensitivity to Drugs 1. Drug acts as antigen and causes an immunological induced inflammatory response 2. Can be fatal (systemic)
Autoimmune Disease Immune cells either become confused and attack normal cells or normal cells are altered antigenically and are no longer respected as self by the immune system
Healing by Primary Intention surgical incision, clean edges joined with sutures
Healing by Secondary Intention Loss of tissue so edges of the injury cannot be joined during healing, large clot, increased scar tissue
Healing by Tertiary Intention Infection occurs at the site of surgical incision that is healing by primary intention, healing by secondary intention may ensue
What makes up the liquid part of the blood? Plasma
What makes up the solid part of the blood? cells and platelets
What does plasma contain? 90% water, proteins, antibodies, dissolved salts
Where are RBC's produced? Red bone marrow
Which is the most numerous blood cell? RBC's
Which blood cell has no nucleus? RBC's
What are the functions of WBC's? Protect the body from invasion
What are the platelets needed for? Clotting
What are the 4 blood types? A, B, AB, O
What are the functions of the blood? Conveyance medium, maintain H2O balance in the body, defense, regulates body temp, involved with lymphatic fluid flow
What are the lines of defense the body has against invaders? Skin, sweat, saliva, tears, nasal passages, stomach acids
List 4 types of invaders Viruses, Fungi, Bacteria, Parasites
List the 6 steps of invasion a virus takes 1. Virus enters the body 2. Penetrates the cell 3. Takes control of the cell 4. Replicates itself 5. Cell bursts 6. Repeats procedure in neighboring cells
List 3 ways one can be immunized 1. Injection 2. Orally 3. Scarification
Created by: wels8301