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Ap Biology Ch. 5


macromolecule A giant molecule formed by th joining of smaller molecules, usuall by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules
polymer A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
condensation reaction A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called a dehydration reaction
dehydration reaction A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
hydrolysis A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water
carbohydrates A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharides)
monosaccharides The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generallyin some multiple of CH₂O
disaccharide A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
glycosidic linkage A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
polysaccharides A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
starch A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose
glycogen An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
cellulose A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β- 1, 4 glycosidic linkages
chitin A structural polysaccharide od an amino sugar found in many fungi and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods
fat (triacylglycerol) A biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to on glycerol molecule
fatty acid A long carbon chain caarboxylic acid. Fatty acuds vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat
saturated fatty acid A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atims that can attach to the carbon skeleton
unsaturated fatty acid A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atims attached to the carbon skeleton
phospholipid A molecule that is a consituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail
steroid A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
cholesterol A steriod that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis od other biologically important steriods
enzyme A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
catalyst A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
polypeptide A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
protein A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
amino acid An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins
peptide bond The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction
primary structure The level of protein stucture referring to the specific sequence of amino acids
secondary structure The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
tertiary structure Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains invovled in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
hydrophobic interaction A type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mic with water coalesce to exlude the water
disulfide bridge A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
quaternary structure The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
denaturation In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. Denaturatoin occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature
chaperonin A protein molecule that assists the proper folding of other proteins
X-ray crystallography A technique that depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a molecule to study the three-dimensional structure of the molecule
gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
nucleic acid A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A double- stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
ribonucleic acid (RNA) A type of nucleic acid consistinf of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses
polynucleotide A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA
nucleotide The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
pyrimidine One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines
purine One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) are purines
ribose The sugar component of RNA
deoxyribose The sugar component of DNA, having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA
double helix The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
antiparallel The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
alpha (α) helix A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure
beta (β) pleated sheet One form of the secondary structure of proteins inwhich the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to eah other and are held together by hydrogen bonds
Created by: gnomealot



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