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Neural Bases Part 3a

Neuroscience for Speech and Hearing, Test 1

Prosencephalon divides into telencephalon: contains cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, lateral ventricles and diencephalon: contains the thalamus, hupsthalamus, 3rd ventricle
Mesencephalon contains midbrain, cerebral aqueduct
Rhombencephalon divides into metencephalon: contains pons, cerebellum, 4th ventricle and myelencephalon: contains medulla oblongata
General structures of cerebral cortex 3-5mm thick sheet of neuronal bodies – gray matter; gyri/gyrus – the ridges; sulci/sulcus – the grooves; fissure – larger and deeper sulcus
Functions of Cellular Layers I-III associational ; produce meaningful perceptual experience of the world; enable us to interact effectively, support abstract thinking and language
Functions of Cellular Layer IV participates in somatosensation; production of sensory modalities – touch, temp, pain, proprioception (ability to tell where your body is in space)
Functions of Cellular Layer V gives rise to descending motor tracts
Functions of Cellular Layer VI sends efferent motor fibers to thalamus (relay center – what it receives from motor feedback, it determines where it sends the msg. onward)
Brodmann’s Area 44 Broca’s
Brodmann’s Area 45 most specific to Broca’s
Brodmann’s Area 4 Primary Motor Cortex (precentral gyrus)
Brodmann’s Area 22 Wernicke’s Area (superior temporal gyrus)
Brodmann’s Area 41, 42 Primary Auditory Cortex (Heshl’s gyrus)
Brodmann’s Area 44, 45, 47 together form the Inferior Frontal Gyrus
Association fibers interconnect regions within the same hemisphere; ex: arcuate fasciculus connects Broca’s to Wernicke’s areas
Damage to arcuate fasciculus results in conduction aphasia (can’t repeat is hallmark sign)
Commissural fibers connect corresponding regions of the 2 separate hemispheres; ex: corpus callosum
Longitudinal fissure runs anterior/posterior, separates right and left hemispheres
Lateral fissure (aka Sylvian fissure) divides frontal & parietal lobes from the temporal lobe below them; longer in left hemisphere; one of earliest sulci to develop, appears at ~14wks gestation
Central sulcus (aka fissure of Orlando) separates parietal from frontal
Transverse fissure divides cerebellum & cerebrum
FRONTAL LOBE 1 vertical gyrus: precentral gyrus; 3 horizontal gyri: superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus ; made of Brodmann’s 44, 45, 47
PARIETAL LOBE visual attention and spatial orientation, touch perception, integration of different senses that allows for understanding of a single concept
In the inferior parietal lobule… the angular gyrus is important for reading
TEMPORAL LOBE hearing ability and processing, memory acquisition, language comprehension, Heshl’s gyrus (primary aud. cortex)
Wernicke’s area located in Temporal lobe; language association area in dominant hemisphere
OCCIPITAL LOBE primary visual cortex
INSULAR LOBE (aka – insula, Isle of Reil) current knowledge is minimal – functions are elusive; may play a role in the limbic system associated w/ emotion and body’s own regulation of homeostasis; may play a role in sensorimotor planning
LIMBIC LOBE (aks Limbic system) arc-shaped region of cortex on medial surface of each hemisphere; gives visceral functions (respiration, heart rate), provides emotional drive, generates fight/flight response
cingulated gyrus located in Limbic Lobe, responsible for anxiety & altered behavior
hippocampus Located in Limbic lobe, regulates motivation, learning, & memory
Precentral Gyrus the one vertical gyrus on the frontal lobe, anterior to the central sulcus
Primary Motor Cortex FUNCTION: regulates fine movements of face (including speaking), arms, and legs
Premotor Cortex FUNCTION: regulates the responsiveness of premotor and Broca’s areas (impt in specific motor speech disorders)
Prefrontal Cortex FUNCTION: cognitive, judgment, exec. functions, decision making
DAMAGE to frontal lobe (esp. prefrontal cortex) lesions here result in difficulties w/ planning, thinking, reasoning; also personality changes
POSTCENTRAL GYRUS location anterior boundary of the parietal lobe
SUPERIOR PARIETAL LOBULE damage results in sensory loss to contralateral half of body.
INFERIOR PARIETAL LOBULE damage in dominant hemisphere results in reading difficulties b/c of angular gyrus.
ANGULAR GYRUS Function important for reading
SUPRAMARGINAL GYRUS Function important for reading, writing, and math
HESCHL’S GYRI primary auditory cortex (Temporal Lobe); Brodmann’s 41, 42; buried in lateral sulcus and in front of insula
HESCHL’S GYRI Damage partial attenuation in hearing sensitivity
Wernicke’s Area Damage in dominant hemisphere fluent aphasia
Wernicke’s Area Damage in non-dominant hemisphere deficits perceiving music and environmental sounds; can’t comprehend them
CALCARINE SULCUS divides occipital into upper and lower operculum (?)
Primary Visual Cortex Damage unilaterally: homonymous hemianopsia [one-sided blindness in both eyes; ex: rt. side of vision in BOTH eyes]; bilaterally: cortical blindness - eyeball functions okay but can’t transmit message along cortex
SECONDARY VISUAL CORTEX Function: gives feedback to primary visual cortex
Secondary visual cortex Damage visual agnosia, color agnosia, alexia, impaired visual memories
The Insula: aka – insular lobe, Isle of Reil located deep in the lateral fissure, outlined by circular sulcus, has both short & long gyri.
Role of the Insula Not a lot of info is currently known but suggestions include: it plays a role in the limbic system associated w/ emotion and body’s own regulation of homeostasis, lesion here may result in apraxia of speech, but not sure how
Projection fibers can be made of both efferent and afferent nerve, connect brain to thalamus, brainstem and/or spinal cord; ex: corticospinal tract –
Corona radiate major structure of projection fibers
Internal capsule white matter projection fibers between cerebral cortex & medulla (brain stem); can only be seen in horizontal or coronal sections; contains corticospinal fibers & corticobulbar fibers
Created by: jrschwa1



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