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COMD 331 Test 1

Language Development Test 1

What is the physical representation of language? Respiration, phonation, articulation, resonation
How has language evolved? Evolves within specific historical, social and cultural contexts
Language is described by 5 parameters, what are they? Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
What is language? A socially shared code that uses a conventional system to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to people who know the same code.
What is the first point about language? Language is socially shared.
What is the second point about language? Language is a code that uses a system of arbitrary symbols. Words provide code for communicating.
What is a language community? A group of people who use a common language.
What is the third point about language? Language code is conventional. It is specific, systematic, and rule governed.
Morpheme Smallest unit of spoken language that carries meaning.
What is the fourth point about language? Language is a representational tool. Used for thinking and allows us to communicate these thoughts with others.
Language is... Species specific and species uniform
True language has: Productivity, semanticity, and displacement.
Traditional communication theory has: sender, receiver, medium, and message
Modularity Cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within brain structures.
Domain specific Regions in the brain that process specific types of information.
Domain general Brain has generalized module where all parts work together to process information.
Phonology (1st part of Language) Rules governing structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables.
Morphology (2nd part of Language) Internal organization of words.
Syntax (3rd part of Language) Rules that govern the form and structure of sentences, specific word order, sentence organization, and relationships between words.
Semantics (4th part of Language) Rules governing meaning or content of words and word combinations. Words that represent concepts.
Pragmatics (5th part of language) Rules related to language use within communicative context. Govern conversations. Organizing principle of language.
Lenneberg's Characterization of Language Regular onset of speech, speech is not suppressible, language can't be taught to other species
Theory of Mind Recognizing that other people have their own beliefs and desires...ability to imagine the world from someone else's point of view.
Aphasia Impairment of language function due to localized brain damage which leads to difficulty understanding and/or producing linguistic forms.
What does aphasia affect? Speaking, hearing, listening, reading, and/or writing.
Fluent Aphasia Impairment in language comprehension, word retrieval difficulties, phonemic and semantic difficulties. Speech likely to contain nonsense words (neologisms).
Nonfluent Aphasia Poor language output, reduced vocab, impairments of articulation, rate, and prosody. Better comprehension than production.
Broca's Area Left frontal lobe. Helps with speech production. (Nonfluent Aphasia)
Wernicke's Area Left posterior temporal lobe. Language planning and comprehension. (Fluent Aphasia)
Arcuate Fasciculus Bundle of white matter (axons) located below cortex between Wernicke's Area and Broca's area. Provides a connection between 2 areas.
Conduction Aphasia Trouble comprehending/ producing complex language, but simple language tasks can be done.
Localization Attributing very specific language functions to specific brain regions.
Williams Syndrome Relatively intact grammar and vocab with severe deficits in cognitive abilities.
Specific Language Impairment cognitive abilities within normal range, but deficits in vocab and sever deficits in morphosyntax.
Autism Cognitive abilities can be within normal range, but difficulty with language and social interactions.
Critical Age Hypothesis Children reared in isolation, language creation, late onset of language.
Pidgin Simplified language derived from 2 languages by people who don't share a common language. Absence of complex grammar and has limited vocabulary.
Creole Pidgin language that has evolved and begins to be acquired by children as their native language and it becomes the first language of a community.
Productivity Speakers can make new utterances and recombine forms they already know to express novel utterances. Language is generative.
Semanticity Speakers can use language to refer to ideas, events, objects. Language is symbolic.
Displacement Speakers can use language to talk about things not in the here and now. Language is decontextualized.
Created by: tannehillke



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