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Neural Bases Part 2

Neuroscience for Speech and Hearing, test 1

Dura Mater layer of meninges that adheres to inner skull superiorly and archnoid mater inferiorly
Arachnoid Mater layer of meninges that is thin and non-vascular, situated between the dura and pia maters
Arachnoid trabeculae fibrous tissue connecting the arachnoid and pia
Subarachnoid space actual space filled with CSF
Arachnoid granulations arachnoid extensions through dura near vertex, CSF drainage into superior sagittal sinus
Pia Mater layer of meninges that is thin and transparent, attached to the arachnoid mater and the brain, closely adheres to brain and surrounds blood vessels
Leptomeninges arachnoid mater and pia mater
Epidural Space a potential space between the dura mater and the bone
Subdural Space a potential space between the dura mater and arachnoid
Falx Celebri large, sickle-shaped extension between the cerebral hemispheres (like a curtain), extends longitudinally in the interhemisphereic fissure and forms vertical partition
Tentorium Cerebelli arises from temporal bone and separates cerebellum from inferior portions of the occipital lobe
Falx Cerebelli small and triangular shaped that separates the cerebellar hemispheres
Dura Mater single layer of meninges of the spinal cord that don't adhere tightly to vertebral column; actual epidural space
Arachnoid Mater meninges of the spinal cord that originates at foramen magnum and extends to cauda equina, filled with CSF
Pia Mater meninges that adhere tightly to the spinal cord, dentigulate ligaments anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater, follow filum terimale and eventually merges with dura
Ventricles purpose is to protect and cushion the brain while permittting the glow of CSF through and into the subarachnoid space
Lateral ventricles body: corpus callosum is the 'roof' and thalamus is the 'floor'; three extensions: anterior (frontal), posterior(occipital) and inferior (temporal: hipppocampus, amygdala, tail of caudate nucleus and the crus/leg of the fornix) horns
Interventicular foramen aka Foramen of Monro; connects the lateral ventricles to the third
Third Ventricle located between the right and left thalami
Cerebral Aqueduct connect third and fourth ventricle and bisects ventral and dorsal midbrain structures
Fourth Ventricle body: pons and medulla are the 'floor', cerebellum forms the 'roof'
Foramina of Luschka lateral aperture through which CSF enters subarachnoid space and then is reabsorbed
Foramen of Magendie medial aperture through which CSF enters subarachnoid space and then is reacbsorbed
Choroid Plexus made up of capillaries, pia mater and connective tissue; produces CSF; located in ventricles
Path of CSF flow lateral ventricle, interventricular foramen, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, Foramina of Luschke or Foramen of Magendie, subarachnoid space, flows up to brain or down toward spinal cord, subarachnoid granulation, superior sagittal sinus
venous drainage system transports deoxygenated blood back to the heart; deoxygenated blood and CSF collect in sinuses
Superior Sagittal sinus receives blood from superior cerebral veins and CSF through arachnoid granules
Inferior Sagittal sinus straight sinus, confluence of sinuses which forms a pair of transverse sinuses
Cavernous sinus irregular network of veins that surround pituitary gland, contains petrosal sinus, transverse sinuses (past the confluence of sinuses)
Sigmoid sinus all flows here, which turns into the internal jugluar vein to be reoxygenated in the heart
Hydrocephalus a disassociation between the production and absorption rates of CSF
Communicating Hydrocephalus impairment of the drainage of CSF into the sinus caused by a tumor or inflammation of the brain; CSF is not adequately drained into the sinus system even thought it reaches the subarachnoid space through the foramina of Magendi and Luschka
Obstructive Hydrocephalus CSF flow from the ventricles to the subarachnoid space is blocked due to an obstruction; most common blockage is the caused by a cyst in the cerebral aqueduct in the midbrain
Causes of Hydrocephalus increased production of CSF, blockage of CSF drainage into sinus (blockage of arachnoid granulations), impaired absorption
Implication of Hydrocephalus enlarged ventricles, enlarged cranial vault, damage to cortical tissue
Treatment of Hydrocephalus ventriculoperitoneal shunt: CSF is diverted to pertoneal cavity in the abdomen to relieve pressure
Circle of Willis joins anterior and posterior systems join together, located on the ventral surface of the brain, equalizes vascular blood supply to both sides of the brain
Posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) supplies occipital lobe and some of temporal lobe
Middle cerebral arteries (MCA) supplies some of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and parietal lobe
Anterior cerebral arteries (ACA) supplies some of the frontal lobe and parietal lobe
effect of damage to ACA loss of somatic sensory and paralysis in the opposite leg and foot, mental impairments including attention deficits, altered personality, and lack of spontaneity
effect of damage to MCA contralateral hemiplegia, hemianesthesia (loss of sensation), hemianopsia, aphasia, apraxia, cognitive impairments
effect of damage to PCA contralateral homonymous hemianopsia, thalamic syndrome, low pain threshold, coma and cranial nerve symptoms, hemiballism
Ischemic stroke etiology: atherosclerosis- plaque build up due to hypertension (high blood pressure), Thrombosis- blood clot, or embolism- traveling debris
Hemorrhagic stroke etiology: Hematoma- blood vessel bursts
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) etiology: congential disorder, defects of circulatory system, symptoms- headaches, seizures, dizziness, exec. functioning disorders, speech/lang dis., muscle weakness, memory impairments, can lead to hemorrhagic stroke
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) etiology: temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain, usually resolves quickly; may not show up on MRI or CT scans
Created by: jrschwa1



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