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Neural Bases- Part 1

Neuroscience for Speech and Hearing, test 1

QuestionAnswer
Camille Golgi proposed the "Reticular Theory"; the nervous system is a big, connected meshwork rather than discrete cells
Santiago Cajal proposed "Neuron Doctrine"; the nervous system is circuitry made up of discrete neuron that communicate by contact.
CNS brain and spinal cord
Parts of the Brain Cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum
Cerebrum made up of 2 parts, which each contain: cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and diencephalon
Cerebral Cortex controls memory, thinking, language and attention
Basal Ganglia regulates motor activity
Diencephalon made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus sensory relay station
Hypothalamus controls various metabolic activities
Parts of the Brainstem Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
Cerebellum Regulation of skilled movements
Spinal Cord controls reflexes and is made up of fibers that go to and from the brain
PNS connects the brain and spinal cord to the peripheral structures of the body
Sensory/afferent fibers carry information from the sense organs to the CNS
Motor/efferent fibers carry information to muscles and glands
Astrocytes CNS glial cell that provides structural support, contributes to blood-brain barrier, involved in neuortransmitter reuptake
Astrocytes important for recovery after injury, travel to lesions to repair damaged tissue
Microglia CNS glial cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris
Oligodendroglia CNS glial cell that forms and maintain myelin sheath around axons
Ependymal Cells CNS glial cell that forms lining around the inner surface of the ventricles
Schwann Cells forms and maintain the myelin sheath in the PNS
Satellite Cells provide structural support in the PNS
Bilipid Layer double layer of fat molecules that allows for the cell to have a semipermeable membrane
proteins creat the ion channel
cytosol aka Intracellular Fluid; liquid component of cytoplasm that surrounds organelles
Soma the body of the cell where cytosol, cytoplasm, organelles and nucleus are found
Mitochondria organelle in the soma, the cell's "powerhouse"
Ribosomes imporant organelle for protein systhesis
Lysosomes enzymes that participate in recycling waste in the cell
Golgi Apparatus produces lysosomes, packages protein molecules for transport
Nucleus contains DNA and includes the nucleolus that houses RNA
Dendrites afferent, receptive. transmit info to cell body from other cells
Axons efferent structures that transmit information away from the cell body to other neurons
Axon Hillock cone shaped region where the azon originates
Axon terminals contain different nerotransmiter which are released
myelin multilayered lipid material, insulates and protects the nerve fiber, increases the speed of the action potential
Saltatory conduction message jumps from one node to next over the Node of Ranvier
Multiple Sclerosis degeration of the myelin affecting the rate of nerve impulse transmission
Presynatic Terminal contains packets of NTs that mediate communication between celss
Synaptic Cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic cell
Postsynaptic cell Contains receptor proteins for the neurotransmitter molecules
Nucleus mass of neurons, usually deep in the brain
tract CNS term for a bundle of axons with a common point of origin and termination
Fasciculus CNS term for a bundle of tracts
Ganglion PNS term for a collection of neurons
Nerve PNS term for a bunlde of axons with a common point of origin and termination
Resting state the neuron is inaxtive and polarized, more negative inside teh cell/ more positive outside
Rising phase/ Depolarization ion channels open and Na+ rushes in, causing the cell to become more positive
Falling Phase/ Repolarization K+ rushes out of the cell, beginning to restore balance
Undershoot/ Hyperpolarization slightly more K+ on the outside than inside, making the cell more negatively charged and less excitable
Sodium-Potassium Pump to prevent equilibrium, Na+ is actively pumped out of the cell and K+ is pumped in
IPSP Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential. Decreases the chance that an AP will occur
EPSP Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential. Increases thechance that an AP will occur
Absolute Refractory Period Period of time where an action potential has just fired and the cell cannot produce another one yet
Relative Refractory Period follows the absolute refreactory period where the cell's ability to fire is suppressed but could if there is an extra strong stimulus
Steps to synaptic transmission depolarization of terminal bouton (open Ca+ channels), influx of Ca+ signals synaptic vesicles to release NT into cleft, NT binds to receptor sites, astrocytes facilitat NT re-uptake via endocytosis
Acetylcholine Primary excitatory NT for PNS, controls voluntary muscle movements and some involuntary
Dopamine modylates limbic and prefrontal functions, regulates basal ganlia motor functions
Myasthenia gravis condition in which impulse transmission is impaired due to a loss of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction
Alzheimer's Disease characterized by deficient production of acetylcholine, memory loss, personality change and dementia
Dopamine usually acts as an inhibitor, modulate limbic and prefrontal functions, regulates basal ganglia motor functions
schizophrenia excessive dopamine activity in the forebrain
Parkinson disease degeneration pf substantia nigra reduces production and transmission of dopamine associated with degenerative condition characterized by resting tremor, reduced movement, dysarthria and stooped posture
Norepinephrine PNS NT that induces fight or flight response, CNS NT in pons and medulla regulate sleep, attention and mood
depression is treated using norepinephrine enhancing drugs
Serotonin regulates arousal, emotion and pain perception
Severe Depression associated with low serotonin
GABA major inhibitory NT in CNS. Regulates pain perception and inhibits basal ganglia movements
Huntington's a degenerative disease characterized by involuntary movements due to the loss of GABA producing neurons in the caudate and putamen
agents that interact with GABA receptors are prescribed for epilepsy, anxiety and insomnia
Glutamate main excitatory NT in CNS, mediates fast synaptic transmission, too much causes excitotoxicity and excessive Ca influx
Stroke or Degenrative disorders secondary result may be brain damage due to he excessive release or insufficient reuptake of glutamate
Neoplasm refers to uncontrolled growth of body tissue and glia
Primary tumors arise from glia or meninges within the CNS
Metastatic tumors arise elsewhre in the body and spread to the brain
Malignant tumors are rapidly invasive and fatal, often multifocal and undifferentiated from surrounding tissue making them difficult to remove
Astrocytomas malignant tumors that arise from astrocytes, spread very rapidly
Glioblastoma mutiform the most malignat type of astrocytoma, patients die within 18 months
Ependymoma malignant tumor that arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricle, obstructs ventricular function and the production of CSF
Oligodendroglioma malignant frontal lobe tumor that arise from oligodendroglia; first symptom is ususally seizure
Benign tumors are noninvasive; their cells are differentiable from the surrounding cells, they grow slowly and do not infiltrate
Meningiomas benign tumor that arise from meninges; lead to increased intracranial pressure because they often affect the falx cerebri
Andenonmas of the pituitary glands cause hormonal dysfunctions and produce visual symptoms by compression of the optic chiasm
Acoustic Neuromas benign tumor on the auditory nerve; causes auditory impairments
Vestibular Schwannomas benign tumors that arise from the nerve sheath and cause balance problems
Created by: jrschwa1