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Test #1 Review

Chapters 1 through 4

Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability to lower body temperature? The absorption of hear by the breaking of hydrogen bonds.
A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (a liter of cold water weighs about 1kg). 10 degrees C
The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are: Hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
A hydrophobic material? Wax
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin c are equal in their: Number of molecules.
How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2) would you use to make 10L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid? (The atomic masses, in daltons, are approx. 12 for C, 1 for H, and 16 for O). 60.0 g
Measurements show that the pH of a particular lake is 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake? 10^-4 M
What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake with a pH of 4.0? 10^-10 M
Each water molecule is joined to ____ other water molecules by ____ bonds. Four ... Hydrogen
The unequal sharing of electrons within a water molecule makes the water molecule: Polar
The tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself is referred to as its: Electronegativity
The correct equation for the dissociation of water? H2O + H2O <==> H30+ + OH-
What is the charge on a hydronium ion? 1+
What is the charge on a hydroxide ion? 1-
About how many molecules in a glass of water are dissociated? 1 in 500,000,000 (1 in half a billion)
In a neutral solution the concentration of _________. Hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions.
Organic chemistry is currently defined as: The study of carbon compounds.
Hydrocarbon that has a double bond in its carbon skeleton? C2H4
Which action could produce a carbonyl group? The replacement of the -OH of a carbonyl group with a hydrogen.
Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base? Amino
L-dopa is used to treat ___. Parkinson's disease.
What kind of effect does R-dopa have on Parkinson's disease? None!
Enantiomers are molecules that ___. Are mirror images.
Geometric isomers are molecules that ___. Differ in arrangement of their atoms about a double bond.
An organ, such as the liver, is composed of ___. Tissues
Name an organ system: Digestive
What are the two main types of cells? Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
DNA is composed of building blocks called: Nucleotides
In eukaryotic cells, DNA has the appearance of a ___. Double helix
A correct match of a cell type with structure? Muscle cell ... has proteins that slide back and forth.
What provides your body with energy? Fats
Plants use ___ as a source of energy. Light
What element is found in all organic compounds? Carbon
Plants obtain carbon from ___. Carbon dioxide
What name is given to organisms that convert the carbon in organic compounds into carbon in carbon dioxide? Decomposers
Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) ___. Bacteria and Archaea
In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom ____. Monera
All the organisms on your campus make up _____. A community
A correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy. proceeding downward from an individual animal? Nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
What is not an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based? Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
System biology is mainly an attempt to: Construct models of the behavior of entire biological systems.
Property of Life: Biogenesis Any organism originates from an organism (asexual) or organisms (sexual) of the same species. Living things do not spontaneously spring into life.
Property of Life: Organization All organisms are composed of one or more cells and these cells are constructed of the same basic types of atoms and molecules.
Property of Life: Sensitivity All organisms respond to internal and external stimuli (signals)
Property of Life: Metabolism All organisms require energy and produce waste products.
Property of Life: Homeostasis All organisms maintain stable internal conditions that are different than the surrounding environment.
Property of Life: Movement All organisms are capable of self-generated movement at some scale and at some stage of their life cycle.
Property of Life: Reproduction All organisms are capable of reproduction.
Property of Life: Life Stages All organisms grow and develop through definite stages.
Theme: New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy emergent properties; reductionism; systems biology...
Emergent Properties Properties emerge at each level. Arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
Reductionism The reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study.
Systems Biology The construction of models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems.
Theme: Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy Ecosystem. energy conversion,
Ecosystem Dynamics Cycling of nutrients (minerals acquired by a tree will eventually be returned to the soil); One-way flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers.
Theme: Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization Form fits function. (ex: a screwdriver is suited to tighten/loosen screws).
Theme: Cells are an organism's basic units of structure and function Lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life.
Theme: The continuity of life based on DNA (heritable) DNA/genes
Theme: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems Negative Feedback and Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process. (Ex: the cell's breakdown of sugar generates chemical energy in the form of ATP. When excess ATP, it "feeds back".
Positive Feedback an end product speeds up its production. (Ex: clotting of your blood in response to injury).
Hierarchical Organization of Life Domain; Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species
Taxonomy Practice and science of classification.
Discovery Science Describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data. (Ex: discovery science built our understanding of cell structure).
Hypothesis-Based Science Inquiry that usually involves the proposing and testing of hypothetical explanations.
Chromosomes contain almost all of the cell's genetic material.
Qualitative Data Describes the data
Quantitative Data Measurements (data)
Controlled Experiment One that is designed to compare and experimental group with a control group.
4 elements that make up 96% of living matter Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon
Trace elements needed only in very small amounts.
Potential Energy at rest
Kinetic Energy movement
Covalent Bonds sharing of a pair of valence electrons by 2 atoms.
Non-Polar Covalent Bonds formed when 2 atoms have similar or equal electronegativity.
Polar Covalent Bonds One atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons of the bond are NOT shared equally.
Electronegativity the ability of an atom to pull electrons towards itself.
Ionic Bonds the attraction between cations and anions (each has different charge).
Van der Waals Interactions Weak attractions between molecules or part of molecules that result from localized charge fluctuations. Occur when atoms and molecules are very close together (ex: Lizard's ability to walk up a wall).
Reactants the starting substances.
Products the new substances formed.
Cohesion The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds hold the substance together.
Adhesion the clinging of one substance to another.
Surface Tension related to cohesion; a measure of how difficult it is to stretch/break the surface of a liquid.
Coastal areas have milder climates than adjacent inland areas absorbing/releasing heat.
Ocean temperatures fluctuate much less than temperatures on land absorbing/releasing heat.
Insects like water strides can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface Cohesion; surface tension
If you slightly overfill a glass, the water will form a convex surface above the top of the glass. Cohesion; surface tension
If you place a paper towel so that it touches spilled water, the towel will draw in the water. Adhesion
Ice floats on water expansion
Humans sweat and dogs pant to cool themselves on hot days. Regulation of temperature
Solute the substance that is dissolved
Solution a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Solvent the dissolving agent of a solution
Solute the substance that is dissolved
Hydrophobic Afraid of water (ex: oil, wax)
Hydrophilic Likes water
Molarity the number of moles per solute per liter of solution.
Buffer substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution.
Created by: kserrano005
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