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Ap Biology Ch. 2

The Chemical Context of Life

matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
element Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
compound A substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ration
trace element An element indispensable fo life but required in extremely minute amounts
atom The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
neutron An electrically neutral particle (a particle having no electrical charge), found in the nucleus of an atom
proton A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom
electron A subatomic particle with a single negative charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom
atomic nucleus An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons
dalton A measure of mass for atoms and subatomic particles
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the chemical symbol
mass number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
atomic mass The total mass of an atom, which is the mass in grams of one mole of the atom
isotope One of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass
radioactive isotope An isotope (an atomic form of a chemical element) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy
energy The capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force)
potential energy The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
energy level Any of several different states of potential energy for electrons in an atom
electron shell An energy level represented as the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
valence electron An electron in the outermost electron shell
valence shell The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom
orbital The three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
chemical bond An attraction between two atoms, resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells
covalent bond A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms chare one or more pairs of valence electrons
molecule Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
single bond a pair of shared electrons (a single covalent bond)
structural formula A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
molecular formula A type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the consituent atoms
double bond two pairs of shared electrons (a double covalent bond)
valence The bonding capacity of an atom, generally equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the atom's outermost shell
electonegativity The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
polar covalent bond A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
ion An atom that has gained or lost electrons, thus acquiring a charge
cation An ion with a positive charge, produced by the loss of one or more electrons
anion A negatively charged ion
ionic bond A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic compound A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called a salt
salt A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called an ionic compound
hydrogen bond A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
van der Waals interactions Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations
chemical reaction A process leading to chemical changes in matter; involves tha making and/or breaking of chemical bonds
reactant A starting material in a chemical reactions
product An ending material in a chemical reaction
chemical equilibrium In a reversible chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
Created by: gnomealot
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