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BIO 231 Lab 1

Anterior and posterior landmarks, microscope, and cell structures

QuestionAnswer
Abdominal Pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
Acromial Pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Antebrachial Pertaining to the forearm
Antecubital Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
Axillary Pertaining to the armpit
Brachial Pertaining to the arm
Buccal Pertaining to the cheek
Carpal Pertaining to the wrist
Cervical Pertaining to the neck region
Coxal Pertaining to the hip
Crural Pertaining to the leg
Digital Pertaining to the fingers or toes
Femoral Pertaining to the thigh
Fibular (Peroneal) Pertaining to the side of the leg
Frontal Pertaining to the forehead
Hallux Pertaining to the great toe
Inguinal Pertaining to the groin
Mammary Pertaining to the breast
Mental Pertaining to the chin
Nasal Pertaining to the nose
Oral Pertaining to the mouth
Orbital Pertaining to the bony eye socket
Palmar Pertaining to the palm of the hand
Patellar Pertaining the the anterior kneecap region
Pedal Pertaining to the foot
Pelvic Pertaining to the pelvis region
Pollex Pertaining to the thumb
Pubic Pertaining to the genital region
Sternal Pertaining to the region of the breastbone
Tarsal Pertaining to the ankle
Thoracic Pertaining to the chest
Umbilical Pertaining to the navel
Calcaneal Pertaining to the heel of the foot
Cephalic Pertaining to the head
Dorsum Pertaining to the back
Femoral Pertaining to the thigh
Gluteal Pertaining to the buttocks or rump
Lumbar Pertaining to the ribs and the hips; the loin
Manus Pertaining to the hand
Occipital Posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
Olecranal Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
Otic Pertaining to the ear
Perineal Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
Plantar Pertaining to the sole of the foot
Popliteal Pertaining to the back of the knee
Sacral Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Scapular Pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
Sural Pertaining to the calf or posterior side of the leg
Vertebral Pertaining to the area of the spinal column
Superior/Inferior Above/Below -along the axis of the body
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Cephalad (Cranial) Toward the head
Cadual Toward the tail
Medial Toward the midline
Lateral Away from the midline
Dorsal Back side
Ventral Belly side
Proximal Near the trunk or attached end
Distal Away from the trunk or attached end
Superficial Toward or at the body surface
Deep Away from the body surface
Frontal plane Divides posterior from the anterior
Midsagittal Plane Divides the body into left and right parts down the midline (creates symmetry)
Transverse Plane Horizontal division of the body (cross sections)
Human anatomical position Standing, feet slightly apart, head and toes forward, arms down, palms forward.
Base (microscope) Supports the microscope
Substage light mirror located in the base; provides light
Stage Place where the specimen is viewed
Condenser Small substage lens that concentrates light on the specimen
Iris diaphragm lever Arm attached to the base of hte condenser that regulates the amount of light passing through the condenser.
Coarse adjustment knob used to focus on the specimen
Fine adjustment knob used after coarse knob for precise focusing
Head (Body tube) of microscope Supports the objective lens system and ocular lenses
Arm (microscope) Vertyical portion of microscope connecting the base and head
Ocular (microscope) Eyepiece -Magnification of 10x
Nosepiece Rotating mechanism at the base of the head that holds the objective lenses
Objective lenses have differing levels of magnification
Nuclear envelope double layered porous membrane that binds the nucleus (pores allow for transport of protein and RNA)
Nucleus houses the DNA
Chromatin Genetic material; DNA
Nucleolus makes ribosomes; at the center of the nucleus
Plasma membrane Separates cell contents from the environment (Phospholipid bilayer and proteins)
Phospholipid bilayer made of 2 rows of lipids -polar (hydrophyllic) heads -nonpolar (hydrophobic) tails
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum -studded with ribosomes -store and transport proteins produced by ribosomes -synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol
Transmembrane proteins passages of communication; used for transport and signals
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum -steroid and lipid synthesis - lipid metabolism -drug detoxification
Ribosomes -composed of RNA and protein -sites of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Golgi apparatus houses and packages cell products
Vesicles Secretory packages released by golgi apparatus (exocytosis)
Peroxisome vesicle that holds and digests liquids
Cytoskeletal Elements - Cell support; shape and structure - microfilament, microtubule, intermediate filaments
Microfilament Used for cell mobility
Microtubule Used for cell shape
Intermediate filaments Fix the insides of cell in place
Microvilli Add surface area and movement
Centrioles Paired, cylindrical bodies; make mitotic spindle
Mitochondria - "powerhouse" of the cell - makes ATP (cellular respiration)
Lysosome holds cell materials in need of disposal
Cytosol Intracellular fluid
Mitosis steps Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokenesis
Created by: eewolf
 

 



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