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What are the anti-islet antibodies present in patients of Type 1 DM? Anti-insulin (IAA), anti-islet cell cyoplasm (ICA), anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), anti-tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2)
Symogmi affect has __________ Glc levels at 3am, and ________ Glc levels in the morning. Low at 3am, high in the morning. (due to stress hormone release)
Dawn Phenomenon is when Glc is (low/high) all night. What is its cause? high, due to not taking NPH insulin before bed
How do you treat Symogmi affect? No NPH before bed, or eat a snack before bed
What HLAs is DM1 associated with? DR3, DR4, DQ
HbA1c indicates hyperglycemia for past ____ months. It is used to monitor __________. 3; compliance with therapy
Nausea and vomiting in child with no GI symptoms/no diarrhea is usually ______. DKA
How do you treat gastroparesis due to diabetic neuropathy? (3 drugs) DA agonist (metaclopramide), Bethanachol, Erythromycin (increases motility)
During exercise, DM1 patients should take (less/more) insulin medication. less
What is the best SCREENING test for diabetes mellitus: Random glucose, Fasting glucose, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test? Fasting glucose
What is the best DEFINITIVE test for diabetes mellitus (after initial screening): Random glucose, Fasting glucose, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test? Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Fasting glucose is taken after an ____hour fast. Reading must be over ______mg/dL, on ____ separate tests to be considered positive 8hr fast, 126 mg/dL, 2 separate times
OGTT is positive if the measurement is over ______mg/dL. Test is administered _____hours after a _____g load of glucose. 200 mg/dL, 2 hours, 75g load
What skin condition is often associated with DM? aconthosis nigricans
True/False: if mother has gestational diabetes, the offspring will have increased risk of DM in life. True
Lispro, Aspart, and Glulisine are examples of (short/long) acting insulins. short (rapid) acting
Name 3 long acting insulins (~24hrs) NPH, Glargine, Detemir
Early in DM2, insulin levels may be __________. Increased
Most common first oral agent prescribed to diabetics is _________ Metformin
If HbA1c is >7 after 3 months of Metformin in a DM2 patient, you should add ___________ or ______________. sulfonylureas or thiazolidenidiones
If DM2 patient has HbA1c >8.5 in spite of metformin and other therapies, you should add ________. insulin therapy
Abdominal obesity, TAGs, low HDL, raised fasting glucose, pre HTN...3 of the 5 indicate ________________. Metabolic syndrome
Describe the paradoxical hyperkalemia in DKA. K+ is pushed into ECF, but since there is no insulin, they can't enter cells. Therefore labs show hyperkalemia, but none of the K+ is in the cells.
Usually what Glc level is seen in DKA? >300 mg/dL
Glucagon, corticosteroids, and catecholamines, along with situations that raise levels of these hormones, can cause a DM1 patient to enter a state of ___________. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Created by: jsad